Bruno Hauptman( Killer son of Charles Lindbergh)
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Biography Bruno Hauptman
All of America was in deep grief when she learned of the abduction and murder of their beloved son, a pilot-hero. The culprits were apprehended as a result of thorough police investigation, but until the last hour he did not admit his guilt.
General Norman Schwarzkopf was the hero of America, after brilliantly in Operation Desert Storm. But more than 50 years prior to this event, bathed in the rays of the glory of his father
. Colonel Norman Schwarzkopf, led the police department, . tasked with investigating the abduction of two of Charles August Lindbergh, . son of famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, . which first flew the Atlantic in a single plane and thereby became a world celebrity,
Since the crime until the day when the offender was executed in the electric chair, it took four years. But even now, memories of what happened with the son of one of the national heroes of America affect the innermost feelings of Americans.
The trial judge, John Rowland wrote: "In all countries there is some criminal offenses which would have alarmed the public. In the UK, such was the case of Jack the Ripper, in Russia - the case of Andrei Chikatilo. If the United States conducted a survey of what kind of crime can be called the most heinous, surely they would have turned out to be "the son of Lindbergh Case," as he called the press ".
Charles Lindbergh has riveted the attention of the world, once in 1927 on a small single-seater plane for 33 hours flown across the Atlantic. His feat is an award winning fifty countries. In its homeland, he became famous and respected no less than movie stars. Everywhere the crowds followed him admirers, his personal life splashed on the pages of the press and was in full view of all. To avoid all this, . Lindbergh decided to settle in the small town of Hopewell, . NJ, . located close enough to New York, . that was convenient for private trips and business meetings and at the same time, largely spared from the importunate admirers and arrogant reporters,
Unfortunately, the location of the house and made it an ideal place to commit a crime. March 1, 1932 young Charles Lindbergh was kidnapped, and more kid nobody has ever seen.
Colonel Lindbergh and his wife, Anne, staying in an apartment in Manhattan, has always warned the nurse baby Betty Gow about time to return to the mansion. On the eve of kidnapping the Lindbergh dined, and two baby at eight o'clock in the evening put to bed. The colonel later recalled that, resting after dinner in the living room, heard a strange noise, but thought that it Mrs. Gough had dropped something in the kitchen. However, it is at this time spoke with couple, Whately, a maid in the house Lindberg, and did not notice anything suspicious.
At ten in the evening Betty Gow went to the nursery to look at the baby. He was not there, but it is not too alarmed, believing that the child's mother took him to his room, which often does. When she met with Mrs. Lindbergh and found out that she never came to the nursery and did not pick up the baby to her in the house panic. All five began a desperate search, while the Colonel Lindbergh has not found a heart-rending note, which subsequently figured in the sensational during the kidnapping and murder. Pinned to the radiator note was written with gross misspellings, and it was reported that: "Sir!" Make 50,000 dollars: twenty thousand in the 20-dollar bills, twenty thousand in 10dollarovyh and ten thousand at $ 5. A couple of days we will let you know where to leave the money. We warn you to keep everything secret from the press and the police, if you want your son was all right. Distinguishing marks of all our letters - and the three signature holes. And below - example: signature and three holes.
Colonel Lindbergh again thoroughly searched the neighborhood in the last hope to find at least some tracks, then ran into the house and immediately called the police. Thirty minutes later, detectives arrived at the scene.
Almost no traces
Initial examination revealed traces of yellow clay in the children's room and dents from a ladder on a bed beneath her window. Hence, it is obvious the offender entered the house. Yard was found a dent in the dirt carpentry chisel. On the eve of the abduction of two days of continuous rain poured down, and the plaster wall of the house were visible marks on the stairs. But these traces, of course, was not.
After 48 hours of an investigation connected the FBI chief Hoover. He ordered the staff of his department to provide necessary assistance to the police in New Jersey.
The investigation was headed by Colonel Norman Schwarzkopf. He was ordered to suspend the investigation of other cases and to concentrate all efforts on one thing - in fact, the abduction of little Charles. But then neither he nor anyone else could not even imagine what will be a long four years before justice is done.
Examination of the perpetrator of the note showed that he was either German or Scandinavian origin. This was pointed out to write some words. Analysis of ink and paper did not give such can be bought everywhere in America.
After questioning the servants, and clarify the past themselves and their family members the police investigation was stalled. And then utterly desperate Colonel Lindbergh gave a call for help. Ignoring demands the kidnappers, he published in the newspapers all the major cities of America, requesting not to harm his son and return him home alive and unharmed. His wife, in turn, through the newspapers reported the kidnappers regime of the day and feeding their baby, because he had a special diet after illness.
Anne Lindberg hoped that such a large-scale police action to apprehend the kidnappers will scare the criminals and they will issue a. She wrote to his mother: "Detectives are optimistic, but believe that it will take time and exposure. They believe that the abductors were in a terrible adaptations - the network are arranged throughout the country and they have nowhere to go ". She did not admit that her son might be killed.
Two weeks of no news, but the last post brought a second note, and for her and a few. The first said: "We will keep the baby with her until it all blows over". The following was written: "We are interested in having to return your baby safe and sound". Charles Lindbergh, a pilot with nerves of steel, was on the verge of a nervous breakdown. Experiencing because of failures in the investigation, he secretly went to the police contact with criminals, and a month to pay the ransom through a mediator, Dr. John Condon.
Condon was an eccentric old man, who has retired after fifty years of teaching experience, and then accepted an offer to work at the University of New York. He turned to Lindbergh with a proposal to mediate in negotiations with the kidnappers, because he managed to provoke the criminals and he began to receive similar demands for redemption with notes kidnappers. The first letter came after a newspaper suggested he enter into negotiations with the kidnappers. The letter reads as follows: "Sir, If you want to be a mediator in negotiations with Lindbergh, follow our instructions". Lindberg Condon initially treated with suspicion, but when he showed the message to the distinctive signs of criminals, he decided to use his services.
Lindbergh gave Condon nickname "Dzhafsi" and instructed him to print in a New York newspaper a coded message: "Money is ready. Dzhafsi ". This was in response to demand ransom. A month later he received another message, instructing him to read the ad in the private section of the New York Times. It was reported that he should come to the station of the New York subway with the money. At this station at the appointed place, he found a note reading: "Go outside and go to the cemetery fence in the direction of the 233rd Street. I meet you there ". Making his way among the tombstones, Condon finally met a man. He always face covered with a hand. The stranger said that the child safely. Condon swept away: "But Colonel Lindbergh need some proof before he would pay the ransom". The stranger said that he would send night pajamas toddler packet in the next few days, and also stated that the amount of compensation is increased to 70 thousand dollars. At this Condon replied that this should have prevented much earlier. The man looked frightened, and rudely asked: "Are you not the case led the police?" "No!" You can trust me "- said Condon.
Two days later, sent pajamas baby, and Mrs. Lindbergh had recognized in her the one in which Charles was a babe in the fateful night.
Mystery man's name was John
At the next meeting at the cemetery in the Bronx in New York, Condon gave 50 thousand dollars. At this time, along with Kovdonom was and Lindberg, but they did not even attempt to detain the stranger. He called himself John, received from Condon box with the money and promised to send detailed information about the whereabouts of the child by mail the next morning. After the secret meeting actually received an anonymous letter with already familiar identification signs: "The boy is in Bouda Nelly. It is next to the Elizabeth Islands ". Lindbergh took "Bouda" for writing the misspelled the word "Boat" (boat), and unsuccessfully tried to find a place in New England.
He returned home on May 12. There he waited terrible news that the boy's decomposed corpse was discovered in the woods as a truck driver William Allen six miles from his home. The boy died from a severe blow to the head. After identification, it became clear that Charles found the body of a little. It struck at the heart of Lindbergh. The pain of loss increased after he was told that the baby was killed on the night of the abduction.
Sadly, the police found no evidence to establish the identity of the murderer. Lindberg said that he would be a little easier if the offender was in prison, and that impunity for such crimes is far too heavy burden for him.
After the hype died down a newspaper, Charles Lindbergh was plunged into politics, particularly interested in the ideas of fascism that were distributed in those years in Europe. But police scrupulously continued protracted investigation into this matter. The money, channeled through the "Dzhafsi", were the main piece of evidence, as Lindberg advance rewrote numbers of banknotes. These numbers were sent to all parts of the country. All banks and insurance schemes have been instructed to increase vigilance to identify the client who provided tickets with those numbers.
September 15, 1934 thirty-five emigrant from Germany, was arrested after the calculation of the 10 gallons of gasoline 10dollarovymi bills, among which was the bill with "marked" the serial number. Alerts gas station clerk recorded the number of vehicles that the customer and notify the police.
A quick check found that the owner of the car is a kind of Bruno Hauptman, who lives on 222 th Street in New York. After his arrest he had during the search were found a few notes from the ransom, and in the garage - 14 thousand dollars. The survey also gave the flat result: the inside of the cupboard door was scrawled phone number Condon.
Hauptman said he has lived in America since 1923 and focuses mainly on the resale of shares. "I was lucky - he has to say. - I am not a criminal. All that I have is produced by transactions, rather than criminal acts ". Izvorachivayas, he will argue that a large sum of cash found on him, belongs to his friend Isidore Fishu, a prosperous trader in furs, and that he gave the money under his custody until the return from a trip to Germany. However, as it turned out, Fish died in Germany and is unlikely to have been able to confirm this version of
. In those days, Interpol did not exist, . but, . contact with German colleagues, . Group Norman Schwarzkopf learned, . Hauptman that lie at least one thing: he has already committed a crime in Germany, . in their homeland, . was convicted of robbery, . but managed to escape to America, . settled there illegally under an assumed name,
. Another piece of evidence was a statement by a taxi driver who knew the defendant in person, ask him one day pass a note to the Condon.
October 11, 1934, Bruno Hauptmann was indicted for murder and extortion.
January 2, 1935, almost three years after the crime, has begun the process of sensational. Attorney General of New York, David Vilents made an accusatory speech in a courtroom overflowing with reporters, photographers and disturbed public. Mrs. Lindbergh came to the podium and bravely spoke about the events of that tragic night. Colonel Lindbergh declined the suggestion of protection on the possible involvement of its workers in the kidnapping. Even the nurse Betty Gow, wandereth America and went back to his home in Scotland, was invited as a witness in court.
The court listened very carefully and Dr. Condon. His testimony as a mediator in negotiations with the Lindbergh kidnapper were particularly important. He said that after he heard the voice Hauptman, no doubt what the defendant was the man with whom he met at the cemetery in the Bronx.
In the court delivered even door sideboard, on which was scrawled phone number Condon. Hauptman attempted to refute this as a clue: "I am interested in the case of newspapers, and recorded this number when floated the name of Condon, but I did not send him letters demanding ransom".
Against Hauptman put forward any new evidence. When he sank wearily into the dock, on the street could hear the cries of newsboys, offering sensational reports from the courtroom. But the most damning evidence was presented to a group of accountants, invited by the police for analysis of financial transactions Hauptman. They calculated that earnings Hauptman and his wife Annie Hauptman could make capital only 6 thousand dollars. A search was found 41 thousand dollars. Even his manipulation of the shares could not give a profit.
In the course of the investigation and the trial has been conclusively proven that the defendant was kept 35 thousand dollars, paid to Lindbergh as a ransom for his son.
Handwriting analysis also found that the defendant's handwriting was identical to the handwriting on the letters from the ransom and that he wrote in English with similar spelling errors.
Finally, the police presented as the last material evidence of the ladder. She did not belong to Lindbergh and was found near the house after kidnapping. A closer examination it turned out that she home-made and consists of three parts, which can quickly assemble, disassemble and put in the trunk of a car. It is simply indispensable equipment for robber.
Well-known expert on wood Arthur Kц╤hler in his statement at trial conclusively proved that the ladder could be made only as a carpenter Bruno Hauptmann.
Kohler testimony in court can be a classic, it had deep knowledge of woodworking and so thoroughly he had expertise. The author of fifty published works on the technology of wood, Kehler told the court that examined the timber in the house Hauptman and swear under oath that a portion of the staircase was made of the attic floor boards in the house Hauptman. Holes from the nails in the floor of the attic coincided with signs of nails in Reiki stairs, and the structure of fiber surface was the same.
But Kehler did not stop there. He found even at a sawmill was purchased by boards. That was two months before the crime.
However, despite the abundance of evidence, clear evidence of guilt of the defendant, Bruno Hauptman, continued to deny any involvement in the kidnapping. He insisted on an additional, more objective investigation and cited as an alibi the fact that during a meeting with the Condon and Lindbergh kidnapper he allegedly was with friends.
With regard to the notes, the Hauptman stated that the distorted words at the request of the police and general mistakes in the letters of the purchase did not prove.
Attorney General Vilents closely watched by the accused during trial, and finally said: "You are a liar, and besides quite naive".
The jurors were unanimous
The trial lasted until 11 February 1935, a total of 32 days, and minutes of meetings were several volumes with a total of 4 thousand pages of close typed.
The jury retired at eleven o'clock from the hall, were unanimous in their verdict: "Guilty".
Now it was for Judge Thomas Trenchardom. And he identified the defendant the death penalty prescribed by law: electrocution.
Prisoner filed several formal appeals, which delayed the consideration of the execution.
But in the end, Bruno Hauptman, never admitted guilt, was executed in prison in New Jersey on Apr. 3, 1936.
His widow, now 93 years old, she is weak and helpless, but remains confident that, against her husband was made the greatest miscarriage of justice. She still deals with requests for the posthumous rehabilitation of her husband.
But these efforts are unsuccessful.
Norman Schwarzkopf Sr. confident that justice for the little kidnapper of Charles Lindbergh triumphed.
In one interview he said: "Hauptman was very greedy and thought he had found an easy way to get rich. However, the path that he chose, is the most monstrous of famous people. Why he decided to smash the head of the unfortunate kid, we never know. But almost certainly we can say that he felt the fear of possible exposure, and tried to remove the traces of the crime. I never doubted his guilt. Moreover, the evidence was very convincing. "