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MURPHY (Murphy), William P.

( The American physician and pathologist Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1934)

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Biography MURPHY (Murphy), William P.
genus. February 6, 1892
American physician and pathologist William Parry Murphy was born in Stugtone (Wisconsin) in the family Rose Ann (Parry) and Thomas Murphy, Francis Murphy, a Catholic priest. After training in the public schools of Wisconsin and Oregon, he in 1914. received a bachelor of arts degree at the University of Oregon. During the next two years he studied mathematics and physics. Then went to medical school at the University of Oregon, combining lessons from the work of the laboratory assistant anatomic Division. The following summer he spent in medical school in Chicago. He had received in 1919. Scholarship William Stanislaus Murphy allowed M. entered Harvard Medical School in Boston.
After receiving medical degree in 1922. M. was an intern in the hospital, Rhode Island (r. Provides), and then held an internship at the Boston hospital, Peter Bent Braygema. In 1923, working as a medical practitioner in Boston, he met with George R. Minot, a doctor who studied the pernicious anemia - a disease at the time virtually incurable.
The next year, M. he became an assistant at Harvard Medical School, at the same time he began to deal with the problems of diabetes and blood diseases, including anemia. In pernicious anemia disrupted the normal process of maturation of erythrocytes in bone marrow and change their normal shape and size. It was believed that the disease is associated with the action of poisonous substances, and therefore he was treated by introducing arsenic, blood transfusions or splenectomy, in which red blood cells are destroyed.
. Minot, however, chose a different approach to treatment of pernicious anemia, based on recent observation by George X
. Whipple on the stimulating effect of liver on the formation of red blood cells in dogs with anemia. Minot observed an increase in the number of red blood cells in their patients after the appointment of a diet containing liver. M. and Minot developed for patients hospitalized for pernicious anemia, a daily diet with the inclusion of dishes from the liver. Their proposals have provoked skepticism among the doctors who refused to acknowledge that the disease may be caused by ordinary violations of the consumed food. Treatment also prevented the refusal of some patients to use a large number of the liver.
Both researchers presented the results of their observations at a medical conference in Atlantic City in 1926. By this time they have successfully treated 45 patients and 'pleased to see the transition state of patients for a very short period of depression, . noted by the appointment of therapy before liver, . in remission with a sudden and almost unbelievable feeling of health in conjunction with objective laboratory parameters to maximize the number of reticulocytes and erythrocytes new ',
. As later recalled M., 'even more revealing was the incidence of violations of the motor system associated with damage to the nervous system'.
Before 1926. annually in the world died 6 thousand. patients with pernicious anemia. Using a diet with high content of the liver gave a great effect, although the treatment had its drawbacks. The main problem was that patients had to eat half a pound every day (226, 8 g) liver, in severe cases, it was injected into the stomach through a tube. It was necessary to make use of the liver less burdensome for patients, as well as reduce the cost of treatment. In 1928, Mr.. Harvard specialist in the field of physical chemistry, Edwin Cohn had received a liver extract, which was in 50 ... 100 times more active than the natural product. This concentrated extract, not only can be taken in small quantities or injected intramuscularly, it was also cheaper than using a diet containing liver. However, the active substance of the liver, which helped bring positive results, remained unknown.
Another Harvard physician, William Castle, noted that removal of stomach cancer often leads to death from pernicious anemia. He also drew attention to the fact that lamb or beef is not effective for the treatment of such patients, regardless of whether they were treated with enzymes or not. He concluded that changes in the stomach associated with disease progression. Another experiment Castle held as follows: he ate a small amount of beef, and then called in their own vomit, then added the contents of the stomach has been thrown out for food, which was used for therapeutic feeding of patients. As it turned out, the therapeutic effect of pre-prepared mixture was comparable to those achieved in the appointment of liver therapy. In this regard, he concluded, . that the stomach normally produces a certain substance, . which he called 'intrinsic factor', . interacts with the 'external factor' - food - and necessary for the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow in patients with pernicious anemia, this 'internal factor' is absent.,
. Soon after the experiment began manufacturing Castle extract from pig stomach, called ventrikulinom and replacing missing 'internal factor' patient's stomach
. Liver factor was isolated in 1948. and named vitamin B12, or cyanocobalamin, tk. contain high amounts of cobalt. Currently, vitamin B 12 patients with pernicious anemia is appointed by intramuscular injection. In the gastric mucosa produced by 'internal factor' required for intestinal absorption of vitamin B12, which in turn stimulates the formation of red blood cells in bone marrow. Liver appointed pernicious anemia patients in the early experiments M., Minot and Whipple, was effective because it sufficient vitamin B12, which could be absorbed without the 'intrinsic factor'.
. For 'opening associated with the development of pernicious anemia treatment with the use of liver' M., Minot and Whipple were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
. In a speech at the presentation of Israel Holmgrin of the Karolinska Institute, summed up the importance of research of the three winners. 'We have received new knowledge concerning the controversial influence exerted by different foods to stimulate the activity of bone marrow, - said Holmgrin. - We met with the new inkretornoy liver function, are essential; got a cure for pernicious anemia and other diseases, which will annually save the lives of many thousands of people '.
From 1928 to 1935. M. was an employee of the hospital, Peter Bent Braygema, and from 1935 to 1958. - Senior consultant and Hematology. In pepiod from 1935 to 1948. M. was a member of Harvard Medical School, then - Professor. In 1958, Mr.. he was awarded the title of Distinguished Professor.
In 1919, Mr.. M. Pearl married Harry Addams; they have a son, who later became a doctor, and daughter, who died in 1936
Numerous awards and titles M. include the Cameron Prize and the title of honorary professor at Edinburgh University (1930), bronze medal of the American Medical Association (1934) and a gold medal at the Massachusetts Humane Society (1937). He is a member of the American Society of Clinical Research, the Society of American Physicians, American Association for the Development of Science, the American Medical Association and the National Institute of Social Sciences.

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MURPHY (Murphy), William P., photo, biography
MURPHY (Murphy), William P., photo, biography MURPHY (Murphy), William P.  The American physician and pathologist Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1934, photo, biography
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