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Bertha von Suttner

( Austrian writer and Supertestimone, the Nobel Peace Prize, 1905)

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Biography Bertha von Suttner
June 9, 1843, Mr.. - June 21, 1914
. Bertha von Suttner, . Austrian writer and Supertestimone, . nee Bertha Sophia Felicita Kinski, . Born in Prague (then part time in the Austro-Hungarian Empire), . the family of the Austrian Field Marshal Earl Frans Josef Kinsky von und Shinik Tettau, . who died shortly before the birth of daughter, . and his wife Sophia Wilhelmina (nee von Kerner), . daughter of a cavalry officer,
. Most of the time and money is lost in Sofia Wilhelmina travel to resorts and gambling casinos, so Bertha grew up in Paris, . Venice, . Baden-Baden, . other European cities, . fluent in English, . French and Italian, . made friends with many famous people,
. When Bertha turned 30 years old, her mother finally managed to squander the family fortune.
. After an unsuccessful attempt to become a professional singer Bert was hired as governess to a family of four daughters of Vienna Suttner and soon fell in love with one of three sons - Baron Arthur von Suttner Gundakkar
. However, the financial position Suttner left much to be desired, and the parents had hoped to correct the case, beneficial marrying Arthur. So, faced with opposition from the family Suttner, Bertha in 1876, Mr.. moved to Paris and becomes a housekeeper and personal secretary to Alfred Nobel. But a few days Nobel leaving for Sweden, and Bertha, pining for his homeland and her lover, returns to Vienna, where the secret from his parents beyond Arthur married.
. The next nine years Suttner spend in Russia, . Caucasus, . where Bertha had friends, . give private lessons in language and music, . begin to be interested in modern European culture and politics and come to the conclusion, . that the progress of mankind without common sense and education can not,
. When between Russia and Turkey in 1877. war broke out, Arthur von Suttner became to write reports from the theater of military operations in the Viennese periodical. The popularity of articles inspired by her husband to take up the pen and Bert. It publishes short stories, essays, articles, co-authored with Arthur - four novels, written in the naturalistic vein, under the influence of Emile Zola.
. After returning families Suttner in Vienna (1885) Bertha continues to works of art to express their political and social views
. So, . 'Bad man' ( "Ein schlechter Mensch", . 1885) is devoted to free-thinking, . "Daniela Dormes' (" Daniela Dormes ", . 1886) - Darwinism and anti-Semitism, . 'High Life' ( "High Life", . 1886) - Democracy and Progress, . 'Before the storm' ( "Vordem Gewitter", . 1894) - the ideas of socialism, . 'The inventory of one soul' ( "Inventarium einer Seele", . 1883) - social progress, . which, . According to the author, . can come, . defense of internationalism and peace.,
. In 1886 ... 1887
. Suttner live in Paris where he again met with Bertha Alfred Nobel, who introduces her to the circle of leading political and literary figures of the time. Suttner struck militarist sentiments of the Parisians, who dreamed of revenge for the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 ... 1871. At this time, Suttner have a keen interest in the activities of the Association of peace and international arbitration, based in London, to mobilize public support for an international court established for the peaceful resolution of international conflicts. 'This information is absolutely shocked me' - later recalled SW. Determined to respond to new ideas, she wrote 'Machine Age' ( "Das Maschinenzeitalter", 1889), which criticizes nationalism and militarism.
In 1889, Mr.. the book W. 'Lay Down Your Arms! " ( "Die Waffen nieder"), tells about the life of a young woman whose fate had been severely damaged by European wars of the 60-ies. XIX century. The novel contains not only a pacifist arguments, but 'memorable scenes of terrible carnage'. According to the critic Irwin Abrams, as expressed in 1962. in 'occurs, European Journal of Central afferz' ( "Journal of Central European Affairs"), battle scenes of the novel H. 'not inferior to similar episodes from the books of a later time'.
Novel 'Lay Down Your Arms! " forced to talk about the writer as a leading fighter for peace. The book is quoted in the Austrian government, were reprinted in newspapers and translated into many languages, 'Lay Down Your Arms! " thought very highly of Leo Tolstoy. For many supporters of the world the novel has become a symbol of political intransigence. Modern critics compare its influence with the influence of the famous book Harriet Beecher Stowe's 'Uncle Tom's Cabin'.
The popularity of the novel allowed the writer to establish contacts with European groups, peace activists. In 1891, Mr.. Z. present at the first in his life Congress of Peace Forces, organized in Rome, the Inter-Parliamentary Union. In the same year she founded the Austrian Peace Society, which was the first pacifist organization of the country in the history of its existence. In 1892, Mr.. Z. became a founding member of the Berne Peace Bureau, an organization designed to coordinate the activities of pacifist groups, emerging in many European. For 20 years, she serves as vice-president of the Bureau.
90-ies. XIX century. been a period of sharp rise of militarism; W. participated in numerous conferences peace forces, and often the only woman delegate. At the Conference of the peace forces in the Hague (1899), she opened the salon, which was visited by many well-known delegates from 26 member. During these years, W. also wrote articles, edited the pacifist journal, lectures.
At a time when women almost did not participate in public life, Z., active fighter for peace, has earned universal respect for, in t.ch. and Alfred Nobel, with whom she corresponded, informing him about the activities of pacifist organizations, and advocating to donate funds for peacekeeping activities. In 1893, Mr.. Nobel wrote W. their plans' to allocate part of the state for the award ... will be awarded to those whose efforts can contribute to peace in Europe '. 'Must do this, I ask you' - she replied.
After her husband's death in 1902. Z. continues active pacifist activities, touring the U.S. and Germany, lecturing (1904 ... 1905), meets with U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, contributes to the creation of the Committee of Anglo-Germany friendly.
In 1905, when W. received the Nobel Peace Prize, she, along with Frederic Passy led the peace movement of European countries. In his Nobel lecture SW. talked about the barbarity of war, and the inevitability of moral degradation, as well as the need for international arbitration and international arbitration for the preservation of peace on earth. 'The question that must prevail in relations between states: brute force or law, it is most pressing in our eventful time. Solving this problem depends on what we want to see Europe: a heap of ruins, or, if you can avoid confrontation, peaceful and prosperous' - she said.
After receiving the Nobel Prize fame SW. as a writer and speaker has increased more. It has published numerous articles, wrote a novel about the problems of peace and women's movement 'Thoughts of humanity' ( "Der Menschheit Hochgedanken", 1911). In his lectures, SW. warned of the danger of militarization of China, strongly opposed the construction of military aircraft, called for the unification of Europe as the only alternative to war. In 1912, Mr.. Z. made a second trip to the United States a series of lectures. In August 1913. she asked with a welcoming speech to delegates to the Hague International Congress of Peace Forces.
In recent years in the life of W. There were many happy and tragic events. In the German nationalist press called it 'furiey pacifism' in military circles of Austria 'traitor'. 'Under a hail of unprecedented charges, which have never heard any of her associates, Baroness showed all example of courage and selfless devotion to the cause' - wrote Irwin Abrams. She was awarded the title of Honorary President of the International Peace Bureau in Bern, was elected a member of the advisory board of the Carnegie Peace Foundation in the United States.
Abandoning surgery for a malignant tumor, NE. died in June 1914, just six weeks before the First World War.

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