Luthuli (Luthuli), Albert( South African politician, Nobel Peace Prize, 1960)
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Biography Luthuli (Luthuli), Albert
1898. - July 21, 1967
South African politician Mwumba Albert John Luthuli was born in the Seventh Day Adventist Mission near Bulawayo (Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe). Although the exact date of his birth is unknown, it is believed that he was born in 1898. L. belonged to the noble Zulu clan, his name Mwumba translated as 'long rains'. The boy's parents, John Bunyan Luthuli and Mtonya (Gumede) Luthuli, were born in South Africa but moved to Rhodesia, where Luthuli Sr. was a missionary and translator. He died shortly after birth.
Around 1908. A mother. returned to the province of Natal, and the family settled on a farm in Christian missionaries. Intending to give her son a good education, Mtonya sent him to live with the leader Groutvillya, had the boy's uncle. Here he first went to school. In 1915, Mr.. L. entered the Methodist school teacher in Ivendeyle and finished it two years later, and then became the director and sole teacher school Blauboshe (Natal). Then he was ordained and began to act as a priest of the Methodist Church.
Receiving an award from the Department of Education Natal, L. continued his education at the college mission Adams (two years), and then taught there for 13 years. He founded the Society of the Zulu language and literature, served as choirmaster and Secretary of the South African Football Association. In 1927, Mr.. He married Nokuhane Behengu, a local teacher and the granddaughter of the Zulu leader, was born in a family of seven children.
In 1933. group of tribal elders appealed to the L. request to run for election chief. After two years, giving way to their perseverance, L. resigned from the college and in 1936. became the leader. In Groutville, the administrative center of the reservation, L. took over the care of approximately 5 thousand. man. Their economic situation and the exploitation by the white minority were not given L. rest.
In the same year the South African government promulgated two laws which seriously infringe upon the rights of Negroes. Composing 80% of the population, they were excluded from the electoral rolls Cape Province. In the legislature had only three black representatives (and then out of white), whereas white - 150. Put on the black family was 4 ... 5 acres, white - 375.
Although L. saharovodov able to organize and get some concessions from the government, . He began to understand, . that the white power success unlikely, . that the tribal system - a cunning ploy and white 'is to create the illusion of autonomy from the Africans' while retaining a commanding position,
. L. not yet had a clear plan of resistance, but his faith in the church as a means of political and social changes shaken. In 1945, Mr.. He joined the Natal branch of the African National Congress (ANC), an organization established in 1912. to unite the tribes in the fight for voting rights.
During the Second World War, people of color Union of South Africa (South Africa) has given strong support to the Government, cherishing the hope that their loyalty will be rewarded after victory. However, in 1946. Prime Minister Jan Troubles began a policy of apartheid or separate development of races. Black people were completely deprived of electoral rights, imposing travel passes for blacks, interracial marriages were prohibited. Violated the rights of individuals were of mixed race and Asians.
L. more and more immersed in the political life. He spoke to the tribes, and in 1948. traveled to the United States to warn about the crisis in the Union and ask for help. On his return he was elected chairman of Natal Branch of the ANC, who began a campaign of disobedience, to 'bring their feelings to the white people'. Black deliberately violated the curfew and the rules of segregation, did not resist arrest. L. was also arrested in Natal, although it was released indefinitely. Government officials have suggested that he resign as chairman of the local branch of the ANC or the leader of the reservation, but he refused. Subsequently, L. removed from the duties of chief. Supporting the work of its existence on a small plot of land, he continued his political activities.
A month after the deposition of A. was elected chairman of the ANC. He began to travel throughout the country, condemning the pass laws and the Bantu Education (according to which schools are closed during the missions) and calling for nonviolent protest. In response, the government prohibited him from appearing in the big cities and at rallies in two years. At the end of this period, he resumed his public speaking activities. L. ready to lead a campaign of protest against the expulsion of 75 thousand. Blacks, when he was exiled to Groutvill for two years. In 1955, Mr.. He was reelected chairman of the ANC.
Five months after the end of the second link, authorities arrested L. and 155 other activists for treason and put them in the Johannesburg Prison. The process strengthened the position of L. as de facto leader of the black population of South Africa and brought him international fame. Even from prison, he organized a campaign of protest, a form of which was 'stay home': the black boycott work. Eventually the charges against L. and 64 activists were removed.
L. resumed performances, turning to white, and black in the provinces of Natal and the Cape. The government once again resorted to expulsion, this time for 5 years 'for spreading hatred between European and non-European populations'. After sharpevillskoy massacre in 1960, when 64 unarmed black man killed during a demonstration against the pass laws, L. burned his pass and called for other Africans to follow his example. The government announced a state of emergency and banned the activities of the ANC. 18 thousand. Africans were arrested in t.ch. and A. He was sentenced to 6-month's imprisonment, which was postponed due to poor health and high blood pressure.
The following year, during a meeting of Prime Ministers of the British Commonwealth of Nations in London L. sent a telegram to the newspaper 'The Times', with a request to suspend the membership of South Africa in collaboration. Without waiting for a vote, the Government of South Africa itself came from the organization. In the spring of 1961,. white leaders of South Africa adopted a new constitution, denouncing Union of South Africa under the name of the independent Republic of South Africa (South Africa).
In 1961. L. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1960. the efforts 'according to equity between individuals and peoples'. The representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, Gunnar Yang said that the activities A. characterized by a firm and steadfast approach: 'Neither did he was tempted to use violent means against his people'. Becoming the first recipient among black Africans, L. received the Nobel Prize 'in recognition of the role that African people played for half a century in the development of society, where status of a person determine personal qualities rather than race'. L. called the award 'democratic declaration of solidarity with those who struggle for expansion of freedom in our part of the world'. The fight is not over, reminded L. audience. 'The immediate challenge for all is to return the good name of Mother Africa'.
Upon his return to South Africa A. was greeted by cheering crowds, but refer to it with a speech he was not allowed; confinement in Groutville resumed. A year later saw the light of his autobiography 'Release my people' ( 'Let my People go'). In accordance with the law of sabotage, the book was banned, L. finally excommunicated from public speaking. Even citing this book was a serious crime. Vision and hearing L. greatly deteriorated, and 21 July 1967. when crossing the railroad bridge he was hit by train, from injuries received L. died. Nine days later he was buried in Groutville.