Marr, Nikolai Yakovlevich( Scientific, linguist)
Comments for Marr, Nikolai Yakovlevich
Biography Marr, Nikolai Yakovlevich
(6.01.1865 - 20.12.1934)
It was said that he can learn a new language in one day. He was a hell of way, and some (not from sycophants) considered him a genius - the only one in Oriental studies. And besides, that the science of languages, he and his disciples pushed far back into the region of shamanism, and alchemy.
He was a shaman rather than a scientist. Bewitched them to real scientists, interspersed with evil savages with his spells on the lips, danced in a circle of fire era. He called the abyss, and she willingly responded. He achieved all imaginable honors in the USSR: it quoted in linguistics is much more (!) Leader of the peoples, the opponents of his teachings were smeared on the walls ... Abyss chewing and spat out: first of his life, and then - his ideas from the official, the only true science. But not able to erase from history the name of this talented, wretched and unhappy man - Nikolay Yakovlevich Marr.
. Opening a celebratory morning of May 9, 1950 fresh, smelling of printer's ink issue of Pravda, the Soviet readers were amazed
. The whole band was given article A.S. Chikobava sharply criticized "Marrism" - exercises monopoly recognized in linguistics Himself. Overcome the frightened, the most astute among scientific attacks Chikobava discerned within the meaning of central: "The distortion of Marr proper understanding of the national". Combating "Weismannism-Morganism" and "rootless cosmopolitanism" in all areas of life was in full swing ...
. Ads on the main organ of the party debate on linguistics lasted two months, and it is strictly alternated publication for and against "Japhetic" theory N.YA
. Marr. The discussion was completed on June 20 article linguist, the signer's easy - and. Stalin. Article with modest charm, peculiar to the author, the discredited cult of "anti-scientific theory of Marr" to "Japhetidology" raised bold cross. Despite the Marxist rhetoric of "the genius of mankind", the science of language was allowed to return to their starting positions - defame prerevolutionary linguistics.
Two weeks later, a pupil and successor to Marr - I.I. Meshchaninov made in "Pravda" a public confession: "We saw all the viciousness of the theoretical path that went ..." Since then and until very recently, and mythical, and real achievement N.YA. Marr carefully edit out of the practice and history of linguistics.
It is possible that Stalin, to his famous letter to "the truth" to consult with a longtime opponent of Georgian Marr A.S. Chikobava and oldest linguist VV. Vinogradov, especially ceased to suit the "Marrism" its national nihilism. For example, Marr wrote that all Russian dialects, and especially Ukrainian, arose independently from each other, and if they are similar, it is because they interbreed with each other. Until recently, the best friend of athletes "in his speeches practically quoting Marr, but now taking a course at the pseudo-nationalism and empire, it is no longer needed Japhetic myths.
. Boomerang back, when Nikolai Yakovlevich Marr for 16 years was dead.
. Does he launched this bumerangN Has completed a villain this enfant terribl linguistics or himself became a victim of his cannibalistic epohiN seems, . Nietzsche wrote, . that the executioner was mistaken in, . that is not involved in the pain of his victim, . and the victim - in, . that she was not involved in the fault ..,
. Marr's whole life was an illustration of the paradoxical statement, though it seemed to many that this man was all "beyond good and evil". It does not happen! Do we understand this man or not, but his good and evil lie on the scales. In the case of Marr both cups were filled to the brim, and is outweighed. God knows!
... The son of a Scotsman, had moved to Georgia and Georgians, Nicholas and his childhood was distinguished by remarkable abilities and excellent oddities. In most of his family have something illusory - Mara, a mirage ... Last inherited from his father - Jacob (James) Patrikovicha (other sources - Jacob Montale) Montagu Marra, Scot, for some reason settled in the XIX century in Georgia and plant tea bushes there. (He was the founder of Kutaisi botanical garden). Mother - not very educated guriyka (Guria - a historical region in Western Georgia) Agafya Magularia was the second wife of eccentric Scotsman. Parents Marr was no common language (he spoke in English and in French it - only in Georgian), and they were of different religion, so that was born in Kutaisi, Nicholas even refused at first on the birth certificate. Before graduation, he was considered a British citizen. His native language was Georgian, and Russian Marr learned only in school until the end of life say it with emphasis and errors. For example, he wrote, "The theory of language" and his students sheepishly corrected genius.
In Kutaisi Gymnasium Nicholas was one of the most successful and ... strange pupils. After swallowing half a year of illness, he suddenly takes a desperate decision - to leave and become a telegrapher. Mother did not let him do. In order to teach yourself a few foreign languages, he almost did not go to school, but ... it is transferred with excellent grades from class to class. Inspired by the Greek language, he asked the boss ... leave it for the second year in the 8-m (final) class to a little more refined. Zealous schoolboy recognize the mentally ill and not be expelled from school only through the intercession of the trustee of the school district ...
. Marr Junior high-school newspaper, edited the manuscript, which does the writing incendiary poems, welcomed the assassination of Alexander II, and even calls for "take up arms" to liberate "native Georgia" from the Russian invaders.
. Later obliging Soviet biographers will in every way exaggerated antics of youth "linguist in the imaginary revolutionary activity
. But Nikolai Yakovlevich never weapons in the hands of powers, not a revolutionary circles, and later - until the revolution - was loyal Russia's crown. When voting on the boards of the University, he was often blocked with the right professors, he was elected elder of the Georgian church and even appointed censor of books of. Much later, he - the only member of the Imperial Academy - come in the CPSU (b) ...
At the end of the school before the young man "low" origin to the national margin had been opened only two careers: scientific or spiritual. After some hesitation, he chose the first. Caucasian scholar Nicholas Marr is going to enter the Faculty of Oriental Languages Petersburg University, where recorded immediately examine all languages of the Middle East and the Caucasus. The faculty of this has not yet been! And he really learned all these languages, be impressed by worldly-wise Professors. Then, on the student's desk he first came upon the idea of the kinship of a number of Georgian and Semitic languages, which he begins to cultivate. He set himself the task - to show the world the great past of the Caucasus.
What makes a powerful one or another theory in life avtoraN Neoproverimye faktyN No, they are often not. Star, talent, hard work - a thousand times yes, but not enough! I think the point is something different - more subtle, "astral", and on the other hand - grubomaterialnom to cynicism. Determined to become gruzinovedom still in high school, and later expanding his passion for the whole Caucasus, it will carry him through his life. The paradox is that manic exalting the role of the peoples of the Caucasus, Marr thought not national, but "in the world" and even "space" category - was "kosmosopolit". Some imp, who was sitting in it, pushing the scientist not to dwell deep in one area, and walk boldly through the barriers involved in the maelstrom of restless thoughts all the new fields. Who knew Marr called it "lunatic", spoke of his "fiery intuition, the ability to hypnotize and supporters and opponents. Those who were not mesmerized by the end, noted researcher adventurism, grow stronger with time unsubstantiated and contempt for facts, in the absence of truly deep knowledge of the science of language. "Great" linguist Marr did not even listened to a lecture course on comparative linguistics. He was inexperienced too many issues for which undertook. Pride taught interwoven with remarkable intelligence and ambition and ... spontaneity of the child, bewitched by his own idefiksom ...
This idefiksom became Marr "yafetizm", which has grown from Georgian and later - kavkazofilii. According to the Bible, Japhet (Japheth) was one of the sons - the forefather of Noah, the offspring that were related to the Caucasus. Even at the university bench Marr coined the term "Japhetic languages" at first to indicate relatedness Georgia, . Svan, . Megrelian and Ch'ang languages Hamitic and Semitic (from Shem and Ham - the other sons of Noah, . descendants after the settlement was given according to Marra related language family),
. This was a very bold (although not too convincingly), but generally remained in the positive science. More - more: the "Japhetic family," he began to attract an ancient dead languages of the Mediterranean basin and Asia Minor, and some rare live languages - on the principle, as he himself said, "that is bad."
. If Marr was within the Caucasus Studies, he would be entitled to the degree of scientific careers, and (in his remarkable talent!) Deservedly world-famous specialist
. But that Marra had little - too strong leaven of the Prophet and nisprovergatelya. His strengths - the study of material culture of antiquity, their ability to languages, he throws in the "reactor" is not familiar to him science of linguistics, arrogantly assured of the brilliant final result. The method for its stunning linguistic "discoveries" can be illustrated by the so. Known, for example, that in Greece to the Greek people lived, called Pelasges, about which nothing is known, moreover, that the Greeks did not understand their language. Marr finds the similarity between the name "Pelasgians" and "Lezghins and void sumnyashesya gives Greek Aboriginal new home - his favorite Caucasus. Or there is evidence of class language. In ancient Rome were, as we know, the patricians and the plebs. Nikolay Yakovlevich allocated in the last word but meaningless piece with the letters "e, and b" and immediately finds a similarity with a plural number in the Georgian language. Conclusion: the Roman plebeians - Japhetic, as Georgians, and patricians - that won them the Indo-Europeans.
He tried to "make related" Georgian and Armenian languages (the latter, unlike the first, was strongly recognized by the Indo-European). Using some similar sounding words in the dialect of the common people, he concludes: Languages "mob" of these kindred peoples and Japhetic ". But the language of the Armenian aristocracy - the language of Indo-European conquerors. Later, this "class" differences in language, these insolent invaders-Indo-Europeans, who oppressed the "ancestral Japhetic, fill a" full height "of its Soviet-era works.
. Then a young, inexperienced insolent luminaries linguistics do not really and argued, too anecdotal seemed his views
. Moreover, the real merit of Nicholas Marr is a universally respected. Starting excavation of Ani - the ancient Armenian capital, Ani founded the museum, firing a number of excellent works, he founded his own school of scientific archeology. According to an eyewitness, "Marr" in Armenia, then in general became known as archaeologists, and to this day Armenians with gratitude the memory of him.
. He was lucky - he found in the Sinai and moved unique ancient Georgian Christian treatise, considered to be lost
. His ideas of respect of material culture and language are fruitful to this day, and some academic writings on language, literature and ethnography of the peoples of the Caucasus have become classics. He worked alone as a scientific institution with a lot of employees - and academic awards and the extent of the empire Russia deservedly not forced to wait. Well not forgive such a linguistic talent "eccentricities" N!
October Revolution Academician Marr received and immediately joined in the scientific and organizational work. Sensing element, in something akin to his own bubbling energy, he put on her, and she made a response rate. Sympathizer "special" shall appoint a member of various cultural committees and boards, he personally favored by influential Bolsheviks, Bukharin, Transfiguration, Lunacharsky, Fritsche. Thus began his fusion with the Bolshevik power. He did not heed warnings over: in 1917-1918. killed on the road all the materials of his favorite Ani Museum, the fire in the Civil War burned his younger son, a student at the red ...
Fair to say that the intense activity Marr and after the revolution there were many good deeds. Organized by the Academy of History of Material Culture (GAIMK), to which, incidentally, goes back many of our academic institutions, archeology and ethnography, this has become a mecca for the humanitarian intelligentsia. She got there something more important than bread - hope for the meaning of its own activities, a waterfall of new ideas. Under the direct and indirect influence of Marr had created many "language institutes, composed a grammar for the peoples of the USSR did not have written. In 1933. Academician opposed unification of the Georgian and Armenian alphabets of languages under the Cyrillic alphabet, and the barbaric plan was not implemented. Witnesses said that several times he even saved the scientists from the GPU. Attentive and easy to communicate, he could support, help. But could and casually trample interlocutor, not even noticing it.
According to eyewitnesses, one day, at an early stage of its activities, Marr played in Armenia, and treated some phrases of the Armenian language. From the audience gets an Armenian, and says: "You are wrong to interpret - I am a native speaker - Marr immediately blurts out:" The fish wants to become ichthyologists! "
. Already fully enslaved (and enslaving Linguistics whole country) of its delusional "Japhetidology", this man could sprinkle thought, foresight, hints of the genius of which is confirmed only today ..
. Listening Marr once, linguistics (his linguistics!) Often do people go quite far and from "Japhetidology", and from linguistics in general.
Created in 1921-1922. Japhetic Institute (originally it was located in the apartment academician), Marr was able to attract as employees and consultants of brilliant scholars of world renown, only a few of them later became adepts Marrism. Marr was at the zenith of his fame - has not prescribed from above. His bright personality, paradoxical ideas seemed to many such attractive - futuristic, sounder time. It seemed that the time for revolutions in all: the Bolsheviks shocked "bourgeois society", Einstein - physicist. Steels known unparalleled, deep ideas of Vernadsky, the opening Chizhevskogo. Revolution in literature, painting ... And here comes a man - the royal academician (!), Who found the language with the new government, carrying a revolutionary theory in the boring linguistics anecdotal evidence. Friends with him (and the Bolsheviks) Bruce enthusiastically wrote: "... from the days of Atlantis have a revelation for us Japhetic!".
. "Inspired by" recognition, Marr has gone into their Japhetic fantasy - science communication with the umbilical cord becomes thinner and thinner
. Akademik goes to a trip abroad with a view to gain the whole world about the science of language, to create an international institution. But Europe - this pathetic stupid old woman, takes him coldly, requires evidence, not revelation. Marr furious: Down with the "bourgeois science"!
Henceforth he will dominate here in Soviet Russia. Absolute madness begins. In 1923-1924. Marr publishes a number of influential works, . which declares, . that racially distinct Indo-European family of languages does not exist, . that initially was not a proto -, . and many languages, . that they have no relation to the national character, . are the "weapon of class struggle", . and after the world revolution will inevitably merge into a world language,
. He "discovered" as the origin of all languages of the "diffuse" the cries of primitive people. Bride whence came his famous shaman cries: "Sad! Ber! Ion! Roche!. These primary elements, according to Marr, we can expand any word in any language. To prove that he no longer undertook. "There are things that do not need to prove they can show", - said a linguist, a mystic.
The longer, the more its arbitrary conclusions run counter to the data of comparative linguistics, developing a whole century before. With each new stage "Japhetic theory" evidence became more fantastic, until they were abolished altogether as unnecessary. In the later years of life in the USSR was no proof it is enough to declare something, and it immediately officially proclaimed the truth. He himself could severely criticize his more recent concept, but it was forbidden to do other.
Prove and justify his delusions were now all students wishing to take languages. Although the corners of some former admirers Marr whispered: "Marxism - Marrism-insanity", but to speak out loud, and still more afraid to speak. After all, his teachings, in the words of the historian-Bolshevik Pokrovsky, "was included in the iron arsenal of Marxism". Against openly only a gifted scholar and linguist Eugene Polivanov, but hunted "podmarrkami", was forced to leave Central Asia. Even after the death of Marr he was shot as a Japanese spy ...
About Marra said that at first he was alone, then - with students, and later - with toadies. The paradox is that his identity as a magnet and a very talented, and utterly incompetent people. And these were people of various professions. Archaeologist Bernstam, mentioned that he heard as a passionate speech Marr, in which he repeated the refrain: "Down with the Venus de Milo, long live the hoe!" Threw all his classes and went to the speaker. Among his disciples and followers were prominent scientists: philologist VI. Abayev, orientalist IA. Orbeli, philologist and folklorist O.M. Freidenberg (niece of Boris Pasternak), partly Sinologist VM. Alekseev. They are all more or less accepted, or away from the most odious "Marrism, but retained the sincere gratitude and even admiration for his teacher for life. Orbeli, rejected the fantastic ideas Marr mid 20's., Death of the teacher day is celebrated each year as the date of mourning. A victim of Stalinist repression Freidenberg already in 1988. wrote enthusiastic memories of Marra. Here are her first impressions of the lectures Nikolai Yakovlevich: "collapsed hardness and dark bureaucracy vitsmundirnoy Science. A human, warm, sweet blew in his face. "
At the same time, other contemporaries remembered the way the controversy "late" Marr. In response to the words of his interlocutor, "I do not understand you" followed by a decisive argument: "I will not know until you change your class thinking". Academician angry at the lack of understanding of colleagues, berated their last words, as the guardsmen around him in the meantime did "orgvyvody". Did he know about etomN naive question! Of course, he knew, but absorbed only his own ideas, he did not want to be careful in the words. Was there N.YA. Marr, in fact, a Marxist, as deklarirovalN for thought - two of his statements. Academica asked during a trip abroad: "Is it true that your theory coincides with marksizmomN" - "So much the better for Marxism" - the answer. On another occasion he uttered: "With the wolves live - the Romans do."
. Himself "the great linguist, did not seem to notice, . transformed from a revolutionary to the dogma, . among his pupils, . quantitatively dominating over the "charmed", . become kuchkovatsya cynical jackals, . ready to bite opponents to death for the banal career ..,
. Again, fair to say that the real Marrism terror was unleashed by these students after death "teacher". Sitting and speaking at numerous meetings until "the Commission's anti-bullying" a member of the CPSU (b) and the Central Executive Committee, honorary sailor ", Academician Marr went farther into the depths of no return.
. Official fanfares resounded all the more furiously, but he was dissatisfied with himself: idea with the creation of the world's language failed, stupid bourgeois laughed "Japhetidology", and with most of the science, not all kleilos ..
. In October 1933 he had a stroke. It became clear that the work he is no longer able. At a time when "all progressive mankind," was prepared for the anniversary of his 45 years of scientific activity, Nikolai Yakovlevich quietly slipping away, bedridden. Say that he is in The burden was terribly guilty eyes ...
Ironically, that "Marrism" indirectly contributed to the development of structural linguistics in the Soviet Union, developing a "formalist" analysis of texts and rapid development has already received at our age. Shouting pro forma "Japhetic spell" serious scientists were covered by the name of Marr as a shield, receiving unprecedented creative freedom in the field, not intersecting with Marrism.
. And finally - a few unexpected echo of the ideas of Academician Marr in today's time
. Reflecting on the "universal language of the future," Marr predicted that this language has to be close to the sound framework, and includes visual elements. "The language of video sequence" - an expression of our age of television and video. Rate-exploited potential of the concept yet! No, whatever you say, this man was able to cast a spell. After all, today there are scientists, revealing the notorious marrovskoy zaum "SAL, BER, YON" ... prediction of 4-tier structure of the human genome!
Science, as we know, "knows how much gitik". Too often in the history of power demanded from it precisely these tricks - pseudoscientific myths that justify the ideology. Authorities think that the orders for a scientist, a scientist, that successfully uses the power. And both are wrong - they use a certain third, laughing and with horns. Crazy ideas Nordic Gorbigera declared in Nazi Germany truth, myths, folk nugget "of Trofim Lysenko, and sophisticated intellectual Nicholas Marr, despite their difference in calling - from one infernal source. Yawning abyss is always open to new customers ...