Willis Carrier( Izoboetatel)
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Biography Willis Carrier
What was not traded and not traded in the XX century! Virtual space, food substitutes, time, youth, water, air ... The names of inventors and authors of relevant technologies and inscribed in golden letters in the annals of this century. One of these names - Willis Haviland Carrier. His contemporaries called him the King of the cold.
"In the supermarket Hudson Sale Do not miss the chance!"
In a July morning in 1924 Detroit boys, shove passers unprepossessing black-and-white ads, just knocked down. And this damned heat! The resonant voice resounded throughout the city, which at five o'clock in the evening already represented a kind of excited ant. The people spilled out into the streets and huge waves gushed into the side of the huge hangar in the dark and smoky basement in the morning which was a historic sale.
. (Giant stores where you could buy everything for the processing of land and gardens, the best seeds in bulk, excellent fertilizer retail, some of the work clothing, agricultural tools, and along with groceries, they became wildly popular
. Their main advantage - all in one place and completely knock-down prices. And then and sale!)
By the evening of the hangar was packed. Rusty fans, who worked with a wild shriek, sadly churned the air, shouting and doing the hustle shop more like a bomb shelter than at commercial establishments. Several crying out and fell, as then seemed to dead people in one moment turned the holiday into a nightmare. Trying to escape from the stifling room, people struck each other injury knocks down the guard and maintenance staff. The police tried to pull apart the fighters, coaches, ambulances took away the victims ...
Among the visitors hangar was a lean man of middle age, and hurriedly left the shop. He looked in, hoping to get something for his lab - pipes, metal frame, insulation netting. His name was Willis Carrier, and he had every reason to go back to the store on the next day. "You've yesterday was the incident - he said Hudson .- And all because the ventilation system is out of service. I can offer you something ponadezhneye.
Advertisements about the next sale at the Hudson last word: "Despite the hot day in our shop pleasant, cool and absolutely comfortable. We can not only make the necessary purchases, but also to escape from the heat ". It was a simple truth: Hudson signed a contract with Carrier to supply air conditioners - a device, which by that time knew the unit. Appeared on the door of his hangar plate Air conditioned long caused confusion among buyers. But today, this inscription can be found almost more than "Please do not litter" or "smoking prohibited".
Willis Carrier was born on November 26, 1876 near New York. The roots of old books from the family library, . Napkins, . embroidered great-grandmother (at the time accused the Puritans of witchcraft and executed for it), . traditional Quaker restraint and self-restraint, . inconspicuous clothing, . boredom, . numerous relatives, . second cousins, and aunts pyatiyurodnye, . always giving instructions, . - All, . sure, . contributed to the development of talents of Willis, . only child in the family, . roam among adults without the slightest hope of fun,
. His contribution has made and the father-farmer, encouraged his son to the interest in natural history. He often drew him to uncomplicated repair of agricultural equipment. Together they constructed the primitive refrigeration for storage of meat. Together on ventilation systems for stables. However traced in the sand piling stacks new schemes that allow to protect the hay from rotting due to optimum air circulation.
Played a large role and the mother-Quaker. She did not tolerate idleness, so that books and clever books are almost the only entertainment allowed Willis. "Once my mother asked me to bring from the cellar basket of apples - Carriere recalled - and said:" Cut them in halves, quarters and Triple diced and then folded all together ". The particles have acquired a new meaning for me, and I felt that this is the key to solving all the problems. They just need to divide into parts, to something more simple, and then everything will be easy. "
. In general, it is not surprising that Willis brilliantly graduated from high school and as a small, full of promise, on concessional terms was adopted by Cornell University in Ithaca, New York
. He received a scholarship, but this was barely enough to pay for room and food. To earn some money, Willis mow the lawn, the fireman, worked in them as an organized student laundry. However, thinking he was far away from everyday problems. General enthusiasm for engineering, . invention of the telegraph, . phone and car, . appearance on the shelves Phonographs, . light bulbs and door bells gave a powerful impetus to the then engineers, . located, . as they then seemed fairly, . on the threshold of great new discoveries,
. Among those inspired by those who wanted to turn the world was and Willis Carrier.
In 1901 Carrier received a Master of Engineering Sciences and worked at a company Buffalo Forge, in the newly created department of experimental engineering. He was responsible for the development of heating systems to dry lumber and coffee. Systems were developed in the shortest time. Buffalo Forge has earned them $ 40 thousand. and spent part of this money to fund further development of Willis Carrier.
On the fanatical enthusiasm of the inventor was legendary. His appearance is absolutely the image of the scientist not of this world. Once someone of his colleagues even noticed that Carriere went to work in different socks, were not uncommon and nezashnurovannye shoes. However, the legendary and extraordinary pragmatism Carrier. He often repeated: "I'm just fishing for edible fish and hunt for edible production - even in the laboratory.
. In Buffalo Forge Carriere met his future partner, who, by contrast, always laces shoes and white shirts neatly changed
. His name was Irvin Lyle, and his talents lay in a completely different field - Lyle was a wonderful sales manager, a man who, unlike Willis was on the ground with both feet. That Lyle told Carrier that some Brooklyn businessman named Dzhonglis, owner of printing Sackett-Wilhelms, has acquired the most modern equipment and good quality printing can not achieve. From the work of machines in the shop the air is heated, the humidity swells paper, paint, sail, shape, too. "No problem!" - Carrier said, and sat down at the drawings. Soon he showed Laila schematic diagram of the unit, allowing to control the humidity and air temperature due to the fact that ...
But Laila was not interested in the details. He flew to Brooklyn to Dzhonglisu to tell about opening. While Willis finished the design and preparing the test sample, Lyle has sold the new miracle of technical thought. It was called this: "Apparatus for the treatment of air," and, in fact, was already well known to us, air-conditioning. Following the Brooklyn printer to other printers pulled Carriere.
The formidable success of the Carrier air conditioners were on the cotton plants Belmont. The moist air created excess static electricity, and it has made cotton yarn fluffy and hard twisted. Carriere stabilized the level of humidity, and all the problems have disappeared. His air-conditioning and coped brilliantly with the heat in a textile factory in South Carolina, where five thousand spindles rotating at the same time raises the temperature so that created a real danger of fire. The first order for an impressive air-conditioning system was obtained from the Japanese silk factory in Yokagame in 1907. This job has enabled Buffalo Forge to finance new development of Carrier. At the same time not raising his salary!
Meanwhile, the need for money was very large. Several years earlier, Willis lost his first wife. He married a second time. Marilyn Carriere, young and beautiful girl, consent to the adoption of two street children (his, she could not have), seriously ill, and the prognosis was pessimistic. Six months later, Carrier could be left alone with two children - even without any prospects to hire a governess. Despite obvious achievements, he was in terrible dejection. He praised, for it was legendary, his air-conditioners were widely spread, they have already received requests from the food industry, and from the pottery. Buffalo Forge had expected large order of pasta factories. Dry the billions of macaroni without the control system of temperature and humidity was very difficult, and now these amazing air conditioners! The coming and inevitable family tragedy. In 1911 the wife died Carrier Marilyn, in 1912, died tragically on his first adopted son, in 1913 - the second.
. But the conflict with the Buffalo Forge was brewing, not only because of the low salary engineer, literally get rich company, but also because of the absolutely barbaric research policy, because of savings in reagents and laboratory equipment
. In the winter of 1914 the company disbanded in general engineering department (incidentally, a few years later she was gone, and herself), and Carrier decided to start your own business. With partners such as the Irvine Lyle, the success can be little doubt.
. "Let's put our air conditioners in Minneapolis rich man Morris" - such as the proposed Lyle Carriere, sits in his own dilapidated chair in his own cluttered office on the outskirts of New York
. This happened in 1915, the cool morning one summer day, promising to end terrible midday heat. At this point, Carriere, Lyle, and five young engineers scraped together together $ 32 600 and created a company Carrier Ingineering. But the company has been able to offer just what was needed - the air conditioning system.
. - Morris on villuN! - Amazed Carriere .- So in fact our air-conditioning giant!
. - And you diminish them - Lyle smiled and showed Carriere already prepared a contract
. The amount is written there, looked very attractive. Compress the contents of air-conditioning in a smaller volume with a decrease in power was not a very big problem and even made it possible, without increasing the cost is, play with the design. Carriere immediately took up the drawings. Soon, the company appeared substantial new customers from the so-called individuals. The list has grown every month. And when Carriere said he was going to include in the special air-conditioning filters, cleaning air, Lyle just jumped for joy. He has found for his brilliant chief of the main sponsor - the banker Cloud Vamplera suffering from bronchial asthma.
And the yard was in 1924. America was going through a period of rapid growth. Conditioners can acquire not only the large industrial enterprises and have a weakness for the technical novelties of millionaires, but also hotels, shops and even theaters. The first were three theaters in Texas - The Palace, The Texan and The Iris. In 1928 - 1929 years of Carrier air conditioners were installed in the Congress building, where they are working properly and to this day. Yet the main test, in the words of the Carrier, has been passed, when his company has installed air conditioners in the famous New York City Theater Rivoli.
And then the crisis erupts. In the midst of the Great Depression Vampler demanded was to turn research and to reduce staff, but quickly surrendered under the pressure of Layla and Carrier. The latter said he was ready to work for free, but can not stop work. Argument Lyle, as always in such cases, differed much greater pragmatism. He just presented Vampleru new contracts. It had contracts with the New York movie theaters, which goes bust because of the terrible heat, not decreasing all three summer months in 1931. Halls were empty despite the fact that the hit of the season was the "Blue Angel" Josef von Stenberg with Marlene Dietrich in the title role. The love story of a schoolteacher and canary lung behavior could not compete with the stuffiness. And the air conditioning forced enjoy it the whole of New York, where (thanks largely to Carrier air conditioners), the number of theaters quickly grew from 130 to 300. Soon the "Blue Angel" - with a small gap from the air conditioners - went to cheers and other American cities.
At the World Fair in 1939 around the stand Carrier Ingineering met a lot of people. You bet! On the stand were hung pictures of famous people, whose homes and offices were installed air conditioners Carrier. A number of photographs adorned with the inscription: "Why should suffocate from the heat in summer and freeze zimoyN Simply click on the button, . and the climate in your home will be the, . as you wish! "The stand was very Carriere and personally demonstrated, . how to use the modest size of the device, . regulating humidity, . temperature and indoor air quality,
. Outwardly, this was not an eccentric inventor, but quite respectable society lion, respectable Republican who loves golf, cigars and shirts in a barely noticeable green strip
. But at heart he remained the same Willis Carrier, who in the beginning of the century to turn the dream world. For days without leaving the laboratory, he continued to steadily improve their invention (one of the last of his findings was air conditioning for the car). Willis Carrier died in 73 October 9 1950, bequeathing all his property company, which to this day bears his name.