MARCOS Imelda( spouse of the President of the Philippines president Ferdinand Marcos)
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Biography MARCOS Imelda
Imelda grew up in poverty, but the beauty has helped the girl get out of the slums. Influential politicians sought her favor. Gradually, Imelda Marcos became a voracious styazhatelnitsu.
The wife of the last Philippine dictator with head held high, left the courthouse after the trial, which ended in humiliating defeat of American Themis. When in July 1990, Imelda Marcos appeared on the streets of Manhattan, in her heart she kept a dark secret - the location of the missing millions, which she and her husband Ferdinand Marcos milked from his ravaged homeland.
Paying for the greed, the desire to live in luxury for Ferdinand Marcos, who died in exile, were a disgrace and scorn of his countrymen. In a country where traditional national symbol is an image of exotic butterflies, Imelda Marcos was nicknamed "The steel butterfly". Spendthrift wife of the president was accused of fraud, theft and extortion. Imelda had the dubious honor: the first woman head of state to face criminal prosecution.
In this woman's behavior in court was not a hint of remorse. Instead, prosecutors are faced with hubris, arrogance and boastfulness. From the first day, when Imelda sat in the dock on charges of extortion, conspiracy and fraud and had threatened to fifty years in prison, she enthusiastically told me about the incredible wealth that enjoyed being the wife of a resident. Imelda and Ferdinand saw the Philippines as his personal fiefdom. They have appropriated vast sums, which America has devoted their country as economic aid. Corazon Aquino, Marcos' successor as head of state, has ensured that the United States, which moved to the former rulers of the Philippines, gave this couple to court. But Imelda did not touch the court charges. At trial, she behaved provocatively: "I'm tired of listening: one million there, a million here - she was yawning in court. - It's a trifle ".
When Imelda Marcos was acquitted, observers expected that the U.S. Department of Justice will fly head. It became clear that it was Marcos ill-prepared. The Ministry has spent twenty million on the investigation at its disposal all the services were the State Department, FBI and CIA. Nevertheless, the case was lost
. American leadership was under pressure from the Corazon Aquino, who hinted that the presence of large American military bases in the Philippines might be in jeopardy if the U.S. fails to present Imelda Marcos charged
U.S. Justice Department in the investigation prevented the Swiss banking system, which differs completely closed. By ensuring customers privacy of deposits, the Swiss gave them complete freedom of action and did not require them to indicate the sources of their income. Key documents relating to the personal accounts of Marcos, were hidden in the cellars of banks in Geneva and Zurich. U.S. prosecutors were unable to reach them. Representatives of the Philippine National Bank gave damning testimony and submitted the relevant documents. They argued that, although Imelda during his stay in power is not earned a penny every time she came to New York, in her hotel room brought bags of money. But this evidence was insufficient
. Despite the fact that Imelda was acquitted, . The Philippine government continues to assert, . that the spouses Marcos stole the national wealth is not less than 7 billion pounds, . are in hard currency and bullion are stored in banks or invested in businesses around the world,
The arrest of arms dealer Adnan Keshogti charged that he "laundered" the money Marcos and because the U.S. government has failed to trace the path of the money, too, did not give. This incident only confirmed the hunch that the stolen Marcos calculated in fabulous sums.
Over twenty years of power - first as a democratically elected politician, and then as a despot, who imposed martial law in the country - Marco with his "steel butterfly" exhausted the national economy. United States supported his regime in the strategically important Pacific islands, because they considered the Philippines as a bastion of anti -. They contained a large military bases in this country and have invested millions and millions of dollars into the economies of developing.
However, most of these funds fall into the personal bank Marcos and his wife.
Imelda, a former "beauty queen", was for the residents of the Philippines, most of them lived in poverty, a symbol of greed. At the height of his career as first lady she has spent on clothes, hundreds of thousands of dollars a week. Allocation orders from the top couturiers brought from Paris and Rome on planes. Imelda spent a week in Europe, making a purchase. After one such tour she loaded belongings three marine container. Footwear was its weakness. In the personal wardrobes "Steel Butterfly" were found three thousand pairs of shoes.
While she spent the money, her husband, treacherous and cunning politician, gradually destroying the democratic foundations of the state, while the world believed that it strengthens their.
The President and his past
Marcos II was born September 1917 in a family lawyer and a schoolteacher in a small town, located about four kilometers from Manila, the capital of Philippines.
Brilliant passing the final exams, he became a lawyer. In 1939 he was arrested on charges of murdering a political rival of his father and sentenced to life imprisonment. But in a second process so ably defended himself that, after reviewing the case the prosecution was withdrawn. Marcos claimed that during the Second World War, led a guerrilla detachment that fought the Japanese invaders, though his statement is not indisputably. Nevertheless, this is what helped the young politician to succeed in the parliamentary elections. He became the youngest congressman in the country. In 1954, after eleven days of courtship, he married Imelda Marco. "Her love brought me to the heights of success," - he said.
In 1965 general elections Marcos became president of the country. Ironically, he won under the banner of fighting corruption. Over twenty years of his presidential salary remained almost unchanged. Marcos did not get big money, but lived in luxury. Went it in an armored Rolls-Royce. Millions of dollars of U.S. aid shifted to secret bank accounts in Switzerland and Rome. At the same time, the financial agents to acquire property for his front men throughout Europe and in America. As the increase of its greed, melted tolerance for democracy. The election campaign in 1969 that Marcos won, there was intimidation, bribery and rigging of votes. Three years later, in 1972, Marcos did away with democracy in the Philippines and established the country's military dictatorship.
Toilet paper handmade
An assassination attempt on opposition to a senior military became the excuse for the elimination of democratic institutions in the country. It is likely that the attack was staged so that Marcos could not justify changing its policies.
Under martial law, the authorities jailed thousands of political opponents and opposition-minded journalists. Above them, abused, tortured, killed.
In 1981 Marcos lifted martial law, to conduct regular elections. But his political opponents boycotted them. They said that participation in this farce only help Marcos to give his regime a semblance of legality. This man stubbornly clung to power. The secret police continued to fill the prison by his enemies. All political parties were under the control of Marcos.
These dark days for the country "Steel Butterfly" conducted in constant pleasures. All that surrounded her, it was extremely expensive. Each roll of toilet paper was made in Thailand from the finest silk fabrics hand-coloring. For these coils has been allocated a special storeroom in the presidential palace in Manila. When Imelda fled the Philippines, then picked up a collection of pearls, which in factored form would take an area of 38 square meters. Imelda even invented a special name for their extravagant luxuries - Imeldifik ".
Guests at the palace lavishly treated. In the rooms where they stood, and wardrobes were full of furs, clothing and jewelry. In silver tureen Imelda holding stocks of beluga caviar, which is updated every day. In a fit of generosity, she and friends sat in the plane, and they went to New York for shopping. Imelda could not afford it. Among other things, she led three dozen profitable state-owned corporations and enjoyed their money for their own purposes. Philippine investigators, . who later engaged in this business, . set, . that once Imelda sent to the Geneva bank as many suitcases with money, . that there were forced to send her a telegram asking to stay, . because staff did not have time to process deposits,
. From rags to riches
. If Imelda and drew attention to his countrymen, if it is occasionally visited by the poor neighborhoods of the city where people lived beside of sewers and no running water, she behaved like a queen, which all had to worship
. But Imelda knew what poverty. She was born into a poor family and another girl sang for American troops for handouts in the form of cheap sweets. Even in her youth she earned her living as a canary. The great breakthrough came in 1954 when she won the beauty contest and was presented to the policy, which made her "Empress of the Pacific.
Imelda, of course, preferred not to remember his poor youth. It banned the book "The untold story of Imelda Marcos", written by Filipino journalist Carmen Pedroso. The book said that Imelda was once as poor as the people whom she is now ruled that it was forced to sleep on the packing boxes in the garage of his family when his mother kicked her out of the house. "She did not want the truth about her plebeian origin became known, - claimed Pedroso. She created a very different image. It was very important for Marcos: if they were born rich, should not and the question arises, where do they get such a huge state. She wore a chic dresses, going to places where people did not even have basic amenities. She lived a fantastic life in a poor country ".
And this whole world just collapsed overnight. Imelda bomber struck a blow with a knife at a time when she handed out awards at a beauty contest. She was only injured. This incident has strengthened in Imelda strange belief in its special purpose. She said: "God has ordained me to a great future and life guarded me".
The CIA had its own opinion about Imelda Marcos. In the 70's of the agents gave a very precise characterization of this woman: "Mrs. Marcos ambitious and cruel. Poor cousin aristocratic landowners, she yearned for wealth, fame and universal worship. Egocentrism and narcissism made it prey to flatterers. Although she received a purely formal education, Mrs. Marcos in his own clever, cunning and inventive ".
Relatives Imelda flourished along with it. Her brother, Benjamin Romualdes owned electrical firm in Manila. Brother Alfred led the government control over gambling. Incidentally, Marko initially declared gambling illegal. But when he realized what enormous profits can be obtained from the sphere of entertainment, he immediately legalize their. William Sullivan, the American ambassador in Manila from 1973 to 1977, said: "When I lived there, foreign investors came to Manila without a stake for Imelda, or for someone of her cronies. This was the only way to do business ". American officials were convinced that the Philippines is governed by two factions - one, faithful Ferdanavdu Marcos, and the other, devoted first lady, Imelda Marcos, wife.
Not far from his parents left their beloved daughter Imi. Vice-President of the Philippine bank told the story of four traders who delayed the payment of the share of their income Marcos. All four were taken to the palace, where face to face with them. She sat in a chair with a notebook on his knees, on either side stood an armed guard. Not wanting to get acquainted with the charms of the torture chambers, businessmen immediately issued by them the necessary amount. In short, the daughter was your mother as an accountant-controller.
The First Lady chose to spend money on jewelry and clothing. When Imelda depressed or she was sad, she dressed up in the most expensive clothes, decorating them with jewels. The list of ornaments Imelda, . drawn up after the overthrow of, . includes bracelets with diamonds, . brooches and earrings worth бё 1 million, . five fur coats, . 400 Handbag, . 167 dresses from famous designers worth 2 million pounds and 68 pairs of gloves handmade,
Once in Switzerland in the late 70-ies Imelda Marcos spent nine million pounds at the time only one of its stores Zagulov. She eagerly took on the diamonds, rubies, pearls, watches for her husband, inlaid with diamonds and garnets.
Another customs document states that seven days in May and early June 1983, she squandered several million dollars during a shopping orgy in New York. And once again went to the principal amount of diamonds purchased from the famous New York Jewelers. Truly fabulous sum, she threw in the towels and bed linen. Finance these purchases the New York branch of the Philippine National Bank. Bank clerk Willie Fernandez told the court that from 1973 to 1986, he personally designed the accounts of the day Imelda Marcos for 24 million pounds. "Could the phone rang:" Madam to two hundred fifty thousand in cash, - said at the trial of another bank employee, whose name at his request was not called. - And the money immediately brought her in a special briefcase. Is no accident, those who engaged in the investigation, called the bank "personal bank Imelda Marcos".
The abundance of expensive things in her New York home prompted one angry American employees say: "I am almost sick of all this luxury"
. Values, abandoned to their fate
. Salesman Alan Erlikhman, . hired, . to sell all the property in favor of the Philippine Government, . spoke about the precious crystal, . which was hidden in the fireplace, . rare manuscripts of the XII century under the old steam boiler, . gilded mirror, . had once belonged to King Louis XIV and found broken,
. Flax linen, decorated with hand embroidery, were piled in a heap and covered with mold. Finished with gold faucets in every bathroom dimmed and proceeded.
Erlikhman continued: "This picture broke my heart. Many collectors dream of obtaining the items of this level, but no one is able to. And those who possessed this wealth, not bank it ".
At one of the numerous cushions sported embroidered inscription: "Being rich is not a sin. It's a miracle ". The next one could read: "I love champagne, caviar, and money". Among other things, in her New York home were three gorgeous piano. Nevertheless, Imelda rarely stayed in the house, valued at ten million dollars. She preferred comfortable apartments in a New York hotel "Waldorf Astoria". Simultaneously Erlikhman said that while she was bathing in luxury, her servants dwelt on the five people in a basement room.
Between 1980 and 1986, Imelda got himself another account in New York - in the name of his secretary. It soon turned out to be a huge amount of thirty million dollars. She spent a lot of money on collecting their own portraits and portraits of members of his family, who bought a well-known New York artists. One of these portraits - version of the artist's paintings of the Renaissance Botticelli's "Birth of Venus". It is well known that depicted the emergence of the goddess of the sea shell. In the version commissioned by Imelda, from the shell she rises, her hands outstretched towards the people, it is ready to embrace the whole world. In her collection were portraits of Nancy and Ronald Reagan, her husband, Ferdinand Marcos, General MacArthur - the liberator of the Philippines from Japanese occupation - and other people whom she idolized.
The political situation in the Philippines changed. August 21, 1983, Senator Benigno Aquino, who was imprisoned Marcos to jail and then expelled from the country, returned to Manila. He was killed at the airport mercenary Marcos. Security Service immediately shot the assassin. Marcos said that he was a communist agent. But no one believed this. Marcos tried to weaken the growing discontent in the country by appointing in 1986 election. After the votes were counted, he declared himself the winner. However, Corazon Aquino, widow of slain exile, has made support of the Philippine army and persuaded the U.S. government that Marcos - a corrupt and contemptible figure, maintaining that great power to disgrace.
In the end, with the full support of the army succeeded in overthrowing the Marcos Aquino. He had to leave the country together with his retinue, February 26, 1986. The crowd surrounding the palace, was ready to devour the dictator. Immediately after the flight of Marcos men broke into the palace and were shocked that appeared before them. The sumptuous luxury in which swam "Steel Butterfly" and her husband, was filmed. Before the whole world brought photography collection of shoes Imelda and huge wardrobes stuffed with all sorts of good.
Filipino people demanded their money. Treasure hunters from different countries rushed to seek. Filipino lawyer Dzhovito Salonga, which the Government commissioned to find the loot, said: "They stole, stole, and stole. And then they stole more. They took not only the fact that they did not belong, but to swallow our business, created a monopoly, arrogated to themselves the right to distribute his companions and relatives of the import license and guaranteed bank loans that will never come back. The first came from all the new deals going to the Marcos. All this has taken such a crazy character that Marcos himself hardly knew how much money he has ".
It is time to return the Philippine people loot. Salonga believed that Marcos fled, taking an amount exceeding ten billion dollars.
Tale of Japanese treasures
Marcos called "despicable act" charges the U.S. government in their address. Agents of the CIA and the FBI made a long list of crimes the pair. Above all, they were charged for their own use of foreign loans, the connivance of members of his family, controlled the important business projects in the Philippines, which financed by Western investors.
Marcos was shocked by the fact that America opposed it. Imelda said that they were ashamed of his old allies. Shortly before his death, Marcos came up with a romantic explanation for their wealth. "I found the Yamashita treasure, - he said. - This is the key to everything ". Lieutenant-General Tomoyuki Yamashita was the commander of the Japanese occupying forces in the Philippines during the war. Said that somewhere in a secret cave he hid priceless works of art and gold bars. In 1946 he was hanged as a war criminal. He died, and without revealing the location of these treasures. Serious scholars argue that the mystery of Yamashita - only an invention of a man who spent all his life in a lie. Yamashita Treasure - more myth than reality.
When in September 1986, Marcos died of kidney disease, Imelda was in solitude. One senior U.S. official said: "He was brought before the supreme court, and she met with the earthly court and won". Bank secrecy has saved her from exposing. But there was not in America nor in the Philippines, not a single person among those who dealt with the case, who would believe that justice is done.
"Divine" mission Imelda
"Steel Butterfly" back to the country, which she robbed and where the risks are often subjected to charges. It still arrogantly, it left its main feature. His return, she explained thus: "I am awarded by God, because I was destined to return to their homeland over. This mission I completed. An ordinary mortal could endure what I endured ".
It seems that the time for Filipinos to help change the temper justice with mercy - at least in relation to the safety of all charm, although noticeably aged, the widow of ex-president. If after all that happened, she was allowed to return home, then for the future "Steel Butterfly" is unlikely to worry: she had enough money to comfortably live the rest of his days.
Photos of MARCOS Imelda