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( The Great Gladiator Rome)

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Biography Spartak
photo Spartak
In 74 BC. e. in the Italian city of Capua event occurred, . which was to not only have a significant impact on the life of the Roman state in the next few years, . but a century later, to find a completely new value already out of its historical context,
. The revolt of Spartacus has long lost its exclusive membership of the stories, like his chief, whose name has become in the minds of people in a symbol of the liberation struggle. The historical existence of Spartacus is a paradox akin to the mysterious pictures, . which we must look very closely, . to see a motley agglomeration of geometric shapes and repetitive images of tiny three-dimensional images,
The image of Spartacus, which we have before our eyes today, largely the fruit of the efforts are not historians, and writers, among them in the first place should be called Raffaello Giovagnoli. But should get rid of a heroic light, which surrounded Spartacus writer garibaldiets, look at the leader of the rebel slaves closer, sooner or later attain the same effect of mysterious images. It turns out that you either did not see, or see something quite different from the initial impression.
Artistic image of Spartacus began its existence in revolutionary France. It is not known who first re-"discovered" the invincible leader of the slaves, after years of neglect, but the excited minds, he came to taste. Gallic temperament literally lifted up on a pedestal Spartacus. His name began to mention no other way than with the addition of the epithet "hero". Here, of course, not without its share of pretty idealization, but I must pay tribute to himself and Spartacus, the extant sources portray him as a man of noble and courageous. Even the Roman historians, who were extremely hostile to the rebellion as a whole and its participants, yet acknowledged the personal qualities of Spartacus. Flor has been stressed contempt and hatred of the slave revolt, was forced to declare that in her last battle, Spartacus, fighting the bravest way in the front row, was killed and died, as befitted a great military leader ". And Plutarch, whose impartiality can be trusted, he wrote: "Spartak ... people, not only distinguished by outstanding courage and physical strength, but intelligence and soft character standing above their situation and generally more like Greeks than you'd expect from a man of his tribe. "
. About biography Spartacus know very little
. For example, the fact that Spartak came from Thrace (now Bulgaria) from the tribe of honey. As a specific place of birth taken to indicate the town of Sandanski in the Rhodope mountains, almost on the border with Yugoslavia. In 1 century BC. e. there was located the capital of the tribe, the city of Meudon. Its origins are traced back to the legendary Medea. Her son from the Athenian king Egeya - Honey was the first ruler of the legends of honey.
Likely, Spartacus was born into an aristocratic family. This fact indicates not only his first name, family name resonates with the Bosporus royal lineage Spartokidov, it very clearly charm the power of force inherent in the people who are accustomed to remain at the top of the social pyramid. And the one certainty with which Spartak managed its huge army, may testify in favor of the assumption that these belong to the aristocracy.
Thracians reputed warlike people. They not only led the endless tribal wars, but also supplied the mercenaries in the armies of other states. In such nations military career is usually considered the only decent man, the more of a noble. Spartak is not an exception. At eighteen he had already served in the Roman army, in the subsidiary parts of the Thracian. The Roman army at that time had no equal, and Spartak had the opportunity to get acquainted with its organization, the practice of warfare, strengths and weaknesses.
King of Pontus Mithridates VI Index - one of the strongest and most stubborn enemies of Rome
This experience is very useful to him later.
After several years of service Spartacus deserted and returned to Thrace, where at this time to resume the war against the Romans. We practically nothing is known about the subsequent development stages of his biography. Ancient sources on this subject is extremely scarce, and yet they can make one very important conclusion. Spartacus did not have to remain idle spectator of the historical spectacle unfolding in the Mediterranean in the I century BC. e. In nature, it was kind of adventurist beginning, which invariably drew him to the center of the stormy events of that era, events, mainly military. Apparently, the life of a soldier, the mercenary was closer and more understandable for Spartacus, than any other. Can assume that in addition to Roman, he also visited the army of Mithridates king of Pontus, one of the strongest and most stubborn enemies of Rome.
Spartak knew all the changes the military of happiness, twice turned out in Rome as a slave. The first time he managed to escape, and he may have joined one of many in a troubled time bandit gangs operating on the territory of Italy. This is like saying the word Flora: Spartak, . The soldier from the Thracian mercenaries, . become a soldier, a deserter, . a deserter - a robber, . and then for the veneration of his physical strength - a gladiator. "After a while Spartak again captured and sold as a gladiator school of Lentulus kapuanskuyu Batiata,
Link to the gladiators were in the late Roman Republic of the delayed version of the death penalty. In arenas fought convicted criminals from slaves, the lowest, disenfranchised and despised by their layer. Gladiators volunteers appeared in Rome in later times. However, Plutarch asserts that the school fell Batiata not for crimes, but only on the cruelty of his master. Basically there were Gauls and Thracians, no wonder people in Rome were considered militant and rebellious.
Gladiatorial combat
It is possible that a certain percentage of them were prisoners of war, only recently parted with freedom to slavery is not accustomed. In such circumstances, for conspiracy and rebellion was needed only a leader, and he was Spartacus, the natural leader and organizer, a brave and enterprising by nature a man.
The plot was discovered. Save the participants could only prompt and decisive action. Seventy-eight gladiators suddenly attacked the guard, broke down doors of the school and escape from the city, "A short trapped somewhere kitchen knives and spits" (Plutarch, Comparison of the biography ").
. Spartacus led his small detachment of Mount Vesuvius (then it was thought that this volcano has long faded)
. Its summit is a natural capacity, which could sit for a while, until then, until the garrison did not catch up with reinforcements - runaway slaves from nearby estates. The number of the detachment, which led Spartak, indeed, has increased very rapidly. This fact is even allowed Valentina Leskov, author of "Spartacus", published in the series ZHZL, assume that there is ramified structure of the conspiracy, covering all the gladiator schools and large slave farms Capua and its environs.
On the way detachment Spartacus caught the convoy, carrying weapons for gladiatorial schools. The rebels captured him. It decided the primary issue of arms, a problem that haunted Spartacus army throughout the war. It is known that at the beginning of military action instead of copies of the insurgents were sharpened and burned with fire sticks, "which could cause damage to almost the same as iron". Sallust. Here's another quote from Flora: "They are out of twigs and animal skins have a strange billboards, and iron in slave-like shops and prisons, melted it, they made swords and spears".
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
In the future army of Spartacus has continued to produce weapons of its own, centrally purchased from traders iron and copper
. Safely to the top of Mount Vesuvius, . gladiators and slaves who joined them began by, . that the elected leaders, or, . that seems more appropriate, . reaffirmed their willingness to obey orders of the people, . initially standing at the head of the conspiracy and insurrection,
. Also Spartacus These included Enomay Teuton, Gaul and Kriks samnit Gannik. One can assume that this gathering was initiated by Spartacus, who actually once led his followers to recognize itself as the leader. Spartak general very seriously the issue of unity of command, subsequent events are proof of that. Placed at the head of the motley assemblage of different races, he did not admit the slightest hint of anarchy. Spartacus was originally headed for the creation of an army on the model of Roman and would rather lose some of their forces than to allow it to degenerate to an enlarged robber gang.
Objectives, which he pursued at the same time, still not clear. Numerous researchers Spartakovskaya war have been several hypotheses: from utopian plans for the overthrow of Rome and the destruction of slavery, to the artless attempts to bring teams of former slaves to their homeland. All these hypotheses are equally vulnerable. It has long been recognized as fallacious theory Mishulin of the revolutionary movement of slaves and the poor free population of Italy. The same can hardly speak about Spartacus orderly conduct of the war with Rome. Within the occupied territories, the leader of the slaves did not try to create their own state. Everything indicates that he really wanted to leave Italy. But while Spartak did not confine themselves to put together a semblance of their men of military units, suitable for breaking through the barriers of the Roman and designated to be loose on the other side of the Alps. It forms a real army and makes it very strongly.
. Marcus Licinius Crassus (the image XVI century)
. Unlike Evna, the leader of the largest slave revolt in Sicily, Spartacus did not declare himself king and remained a military leader, although not rejected, according to Flora, on pretorskih insignia.
. Some time detachment Spartacus nowhere moved from their camp on Mount Vesuvius
. Example runaway gladiators inspired in the slave revolt in the nearby estates. e. like the previous one was a bad harvest, which is not slow to affect the mood of rural slaves, and without it are in very precarious conditions of existence. Authorities in Capua could not respond to numerous, albeit relatively small scale insurgencies that threaten the peace of their province. But the troops earmarked for the fight against runaway slaves, regularly suffered from these lesions. All the more to inflame tensions around Capua caused concern in Rome itself. Pretor Gaius Claudius Pulchra arrived at the head of three thousand unit to restore order. His task seemed very simple. Spartacus on Mount Vesuvius as if he found himself in a trap. To the top of the mountain led the only path by blocking you, Claudius had only to wait until hunger force the rebels to surrender. Surprisingly, what seems to be an elementary tactical blunder allowed Spartacus, the man certainly has talent commander, some Roman historians even compared him in this respect, by Hannibal. Valentin Leskov, however, believes that Spartak deliberately allowed to precipitate themselves, waiting for their units, scattered over the surrounding. In this case, a simultaneous attack on the Romans from a mountaintop and from the rear promised certain victory.
It is not known, as was the case in reality, one thing is clear, Spartacus had no intention of surrender. In this critical situation, it is quite proved himself as a man cunning and tenacious in achieving the goal of quality that often they were shown later. From the vines of wild grapes that grew on the slopes of the mountains, the rebels woven ladder and descended on them from a height of 300 meters to the nearest flat ground. Coming then to the rear of the praetor Claudius, it is not expecting such a turn of events, gladiators routed to.
Now Spartak had the opportunity to begin the formation of this army, the more so because plenty of people who had no. The successes of his unit brought him to many slaves, mostly shepherds, men of strong, accustomed to living in the open air. "Some of these shepherds were heavily armed soldiers, from the other gladiators were spies and detachment lightly" (Plutarch, Comparison of the biography ").
Pompey the Great
In addition to the luck of Spartacus, no less attractive in the eyes of the slaves had to look like the spirit of fairness, which is implanted in the detachment rebels. For example, Appian states that "... Spartak shared equally with all production ...".
On the defeat of Claudius became known in Rome, and following the war with Spartacus was sent praetor Publius Valerius Varya's. At first, he made Spartacus retreat to the south, in the mountains. The leader of the rebels did not want to take the battle to the unfavorable conditions, as well as the strength of his army considerably inferior to the Roman. He wanted to continue the retreat, go to the rich southern provinces of Italy and only there, joining the ranks of his soldiers, to give the Romans battle. Some of the commanders stood behind the plan of Spartacus, but many demanded the immediate cessation of retreat and attack the enemies. Differences nearly caused strife among the slaves in revolt, but in the end Spartak managed to persuade the most impatient. So far, it was not hard to do. His entire army is still equal to the number of large groups, and even the most hard-headed its commanders realized their only opportunity to survive is to stick together.
. In Lucania Army rebels approached the small town of Appian Forum and took it by storm
. "Immediately the runaway slaves in spite of the orders began to grab and profane girls and women ... Some threw light on the roofs of houses, and many of the local slave manners which made them allies of the rebels, dragged out of caches hidden masters of the value or even removed themselves masters. And there was nothing sacred and inviolable for the wrath of the barbarians and slaves of their nature. Spartacus, unable to stop it, although he repeatedly begged to leave their depredations, decided to prevent their rapidity of action ... "(Sallust).
. It is natural to assume that this excess was not the first ever Spartakovskaya war, but now a tendency army of slaves to instant disintegration was most acutely
. This Spartak very afraid. Of course, he had no illusions about the consequences of the capture of the city, but his army was not bound by the oath of the soldiers, who could call for discipline and restore order in. Slaves who were in his army, did not conceal his indignation need to subordinate commands, obedience, from whom they considered themselves once and for all. On the other hand, to avoid the looting was not possible. Army of Spartacus had no economic base. It could maintain its existence only through the forcible seizure of wealth and food. It Spartacus apparently tried to make targeted not so much a peasant settlements as large, wealthy slave economy, which is mainly concentrated in the south and. Large estates were a source not only supplies, but also military. Work there slaves willingly joined the Spartacus.
Once in the neighboring Lucania Campania region, Spartak quickly joining the ranks of his army, and proceeds to his outfit. Meanwhile Praetor Varin, moving to Spartak, he divided his army into pieces, one of which was headed by himself and two others instructed his officers: fury and Kossiniyu. Spartak one after the other defeated these units, and finally defeated the most Varin. He gathered some reinforcements, again spoke out against Spartak and again was defeated. As trophies, according to Plutarch,
. Hiking in the army of Spartacus Tsizalpiyskuyu Gaul (map with the project "Ancient World")
. Spartacus got lictors (Honor Guard) Pretoria and his horse.
. As a result of these victories in southern Italy is completely in the hands of the rebels
. But Spartacus had no intention of a long stay in the Campaign. His plans included, adding to reserves and increasing the number of its troops, leaving the peninsula. Ravaged southern region of Italy, the rebel army begins to move toward the Alps.
. Only now, every day the news of the plundered the estates, the ruin of Nola, Nutserii and Metaponto, destruction of property of large landowners, the Senate before the end realized the importance of the war with Spartacus
. Against him were sent, as during this great war, both the consul 72 years before Mr.. e.: Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus and Lucius Gellius Klodian Poplikola.
Meanwhile, rebel troops mature split. Very many did not like the leader had decided to leave the rich provinces of Italy. In addition, Gauls and Teutons, of which consisted of large units of the army of Spartacus, it seemed an insult to begin a retreat after so many victories won by the Romans. A detachment of thirty thousand men under the command of Kriksa separated from the army of Spartacus, was overtaken by the consul Gelle near Mount Gargan and destroyed. In this battle, killed himself Kriks. (Subsequently Spartak arranged in his memory this gladiatorial contest in which instead of gladiators fought prisoners Romans) Lentulus, who pursued Spartacus, less fortunate. The troops of slaves, utterly defeated his army, and then the army came to the rescue to help Gelli. Spartak continued to rapidly withdraw from Italy, and soon entered the territory Tsizalpiyskoy Gaul, "to meet as he headed ten troops made Cassius Longinus Options, the governor of that part of Gaul which lies on the river Padua. In the ensuing battle Praetor was routed, suffered enormous losses in men and himself barely escaped by flight "(Plutarch, Comparison of the biography").
At this point, the revolt reached its climax. Of the army of Spartacus comes to 120 thousand people (!) Before it opened a free way to trans-alpine Gaul, and yet Spartacus suddenly turns back to Italy. Valentin Leskov explains this fact, later, just at the time of the murder Sertorij, to interact with whom Spartacus expected to conduct a planned war with the Roman state.
The news that the rebel army is moving back, caused panic in Rome, which is not known since the war with Hannibal. General confusion only increased the unsuccessful attempt to stop the two consuls Spartacus in Pitsene. Appian says that Spartacus was planning to attack Rome itself, and draws with an eloquent picture of the preparation for a forced throws: "He ordered the burning of all excess baggage, to kill all prisoners and cut the baggage animals to go without luggage. Defectors in the set came to him, Spartacus did not take ".
If until now the war with the slaves considered an onerous and wasteful, but not a promising one great danger by misfortune, then the face of these terrible events, it became clear that the Spartacus must be treated as the most terrible of all enemies of Rome. Supporters of Pompey in the Senate, demanded to immediately withdraw its troops from Spain and give it an experienced and successful military commander of all power in the war against the rebel slaves. This danger, of course, was to be taken into account Spartacus. Until now he had to fight with rather numerous, but weak, hastily assembled troops of the Romans. We Glabra and Varin, according to Appiah, "was the army, which consisted not of citizens, but from all the random people recruited hurriedly and casually". The main army were far from Rome, Italy: in Spain and Thrace, where the power of the Republic threatened Sertorij and Mithridates. Besides Spartak played into the hands of the general, recognized by all and many times results in the form of popular dissatisfaction with the urban poor disturbances and poor peasants, the policy of the Senate. Aristocracy and the riders openly profited not only due almost entirely appropriated by their extraction from the conquered countries, but at the expense of grain speculation. Strong tensions caused as intensive walking all over Italy the process of land grabbing by large estates, accompanied by the ruin of small farmers. In such circumstances, "the armed forces and troops besieging the State, more numerous than protect it, as almost impertinent kivnesh and disappeared people - and they already are in motion" (Cicero).
. Expecting from day to day appearance at the walls of the city an army of slaves in Rome in great haste held elections for a new chief
. This post is no difficulty in obtaining Marcus Licinius Crassus, a man of rich and powerful, Pompey's rival for influence in Rome. Crassus, who had large estates in southern Italy, is suffering from a protracted war and was interested in her as soon as possible after. Among other things, Crassus would at least partly to catch up with Pompey, commander in Glory. For this approach, even a war with the rebel slaves.
Crassus set to work energetically. In Rome, was recruited into the army of thirty thousand. Officers are selected very carefully. Crassus was able to look him right people, as a result of its usurious activities of many young aristocrats were from him completely dependent and unable to refuse to accompany the war his creditor.
Crassus led his army to join forces with the consuls, who, after his arrival at the main camp, immediately returned to Rome. In the army of the Romans in mind continuous defeats, it has suffered from Spartacus, the mood was grim, and even panic. Crassus felt it necessary, before opening hostilities, to teach his soldiers to a cruel, but necessary under the circumstances lesson. Reason for this not long in coming. Commander Crassus, Mumm, sent two legions to follow Spartacus, without engaging with him in battle, the commander had violated orders. In the ensuing battle the Romans were defeated and were forced to flee the camp, where were the main forces. Crassus ordered away five hundred ringleaders flee and imposing on them a decimation, in which a dozen of each lot shown one person to be executed. "So Crassus resumed the former in the course of the ancient and has long been not the penalty of soldiers; this type of penalty is associated with shame, and is accompanied by a grim and gloomy rites which take place before everyone's eyes" (Plutarch. Comparative biographies). This abrupt move was effective. Order was restored in the army.
But Spartak, meanwhile has already "changed the decision to go to Rome. He considered himself not tantamount to the Romans, as his army was not all been sufficiently alert: No Italic city had joined the rebels, they were slaves, deserters, and every riff-raff "
. Once again, passing along the northern coast of Italy in the same way, . which moved during the march to the Alps, . Spartak stopped, . Finally, . Furies in the city at the very south-eastern tip of the Apennine peninsula, . occupying the city and surrounding mountains,
. He tried all means to maintain order in the army, which, in addition to stimulation of the long and fruitless expeditions, became another cause for dispute between Spartacus and his commanders. By this time include prohibition Spartak anyone was out of his army to have around gold and silver. What a surprise was to bring this fact, even if Pliny the Elder, who lived a hundred years after the uprising, says of him, as is well known.
. Arriving in the army of the Romans and the revival of the new chief of military action led Spartak to retreat to the sea
The last battle Spartacus (fresco from the house of Felix)
He still has not renounced his plan to leave together with the whole army of Italy. Instead of Gaul, he was elected to Sicily. This rich island already had become the scene of two major uprisings (in the year 132 BC. and in 104 BC), now the situation has been the most suitable, in the province, which for several years ruined tyranny of the Roman governor Gaius Verres, grew strong anti-Roman sentiments.
. Again, this is quite reasonable intention of the leader was greeted by an unfriendly part of the rebels
. Separated from the main army detachment of ten thousand people and stood up a separate camp. Crassus attacked him and destroyed two-thirds continued to pursue Spartacus, who, having reached the coast, was negotiating with the Cilician pirates, hoping to use them to cross to the island.
Krass has written to Rome. Due to the inability to stop Spartacus to cross to Sicily in mind the danger of another outbreak of the war, he demanded his extensive powers and even offered to withdraw Lucullus from Thrace and Pompey from Spain. The Senate agreed to the proposals Crassus. Pompey and Lucullus had sent orders to return to Italy. But suddenly the situation changed in favor of Rome. Despite the preliminary agreement, the pirates somehow found it more advantageous to the promises they gave Spartak did not contain. The ships they left the Strait.
Army rebels, pursued by Crassus, retreated to the southernmost tip of Brutsium - Regiyu. The width of the strait between Italy and Sicily are minimal. Spartak, which is not so easily be induced to abandon one of the decision, intended to make another attempt to get to Sicily, is now on its own. The rebels tried to make rafts of logs and empty barrels, tying them to branches, but the gust storm scattered the fleet, this improvised. It became clear that the army of Spartacus would have to stay in Italy and take the fight.
However, the very Roman general not willing. Natural conditions Regiyskogo Peninsula, a narrow and elongated in length, prompted an even easier way out. Crassus held across the Isthmus of shaft length of 55 km, fortified by a moat and palisades. Again, a few years ago, the Romans had hoped that the rebel army would have to surrender under the threat of starvation. Meanwhile, the situation in Rome is undergoing fundamental changes. Annoyed by the lack of swift and decisive success in the war against Spartak Senate decides to transfer full authority over the army returned from Spain Pompey. Crassus had to act very quickly, otherwise, instead of the glory of winning, he will become known as a loser.
Well-informed about Spartacus tried to join with the Romans in the peace talks in the hope that Crassus, not wanting to admit involvement in the war of Pompey, show pliancy. But the Roman general and not thought to respond to the proposals of his opponent, Spartacus had no choice but to take the assault of fortifications Crassus. In the rainy night of his troops, after covering the ditch fascines, overturned patrol units of the Romans and escaped to freedom. Crassus rushed after moving to Brundiziyu Spartacus, in which one army division follows the other. The war apparently nearing completion, unfortunate for Spartacus, and the situation in his camp all the more hotter. Large group led by Gannika and caste separated from the main forces and was destroyed by Crassus. "Putting in place twelve thousand three hundred enemies, he found among them only two were wounded in the back, all the rest fell, remaining in the ranks and fought against the Romans" (Plutarch, Comparison of the biography ").
. "For Spartacus, retreating after the defeat to Peteliyskim mountains, followed on the heels of Quintus, one of Crassus' legates, and quaestor Skrofa
. But when Spartacus turned against the Romans, they fled without looking back, and barely escaped with great difficulty pronouncing of the battle wounded questeur. This success has ruined Spartacus, infatuate fugitive slaves. Now they would not hear about the retreat, and not only refused to obey their superiors, but by surrounding them by the way, with arms in their hands were forced to send troops back through Lucania on the Romans "(Plutarch, Comparison of the biography").
. In addition, the circumstances of Spartacus retreat from the coast was caused by the news of the landing in Brundizii army of Lucullus
. The leader of the rebel slaves realized that a decisive battle will not avoid. We do not know how it with assessed his chances of success even in the event of a victory over the army of Crassus. Himself as the Roman general was greatly needed as soon as possible to give battle Spartacus. In Rome, it was already taken decision on the appointment of Pompey to the post of Chief. His army-quick move to the place of military action.
The troops of the Romans overtook the army of Spartacus, when she had not yet gone far from Brundiziya. "Crassus, desiring as quickly as possible to fight the enemies, located next to them and began to dig a trench. While his men were engaged in this business, worried about their own slave raids. Since both sides have approached all the large reinforcements, and Spartacus was finally put in the need to build all his army "(Plutarch, Comparison of the biography").
. Erupted final battle, extremely bloody and violent "because of despair that has gripped so many people" (Appian)
Monument Spartacus in Bulgaria
The leader of the rebels, on horseback, trying to get to Crassus, was wounded in the thigh with a spear Campanian aristocrat named Felix. Subsequently, Felix decorated his house with a mural depicting this event. Received a serious wound, Spartacus was forced to dismount, but continued to fight, although he had bled to get down on one knee. In the fierce battle he was killed. His body was subsequently found on the battlefield. Already in the evening to the battle arrived, the troops of Pompey, and completed the rout of the rebels. Some of their units, surviving this final battle continued for some time to disturb the south of Italy, but, in general, the war was over. Crassus got the victory foot triumph, so-called ovation, even though he "was considered inappropriate and degrading this honorary distinction" (Plutarch, Comparison of the biography ").
. Six thousand slaves from the army of Spartacus, who were captured were crucified on crosses along the Appian Way from Capua to Rome.
. Spartacus war have had little impact on the further history of Rome
. In it, as in any rebellion, was present when the irrational, spontaneous. The revolt of Spartacus broke out for Italy's troubled years, when, just before the era of great change are in motion all sectors of society. In the time it reached its highest point, has led Italy in awe of its destructive power and his term has suffered the inevitable collapse. And yet, among the bright and strong personalities, . chiefs and leaders of the time: Caesar, . Sulla, . Cicero, . Catiline, . strong and violent, . desperate men and not less desperate conservatives, . its place is taken and the great general servile war, . man, . which said, . the leader, . lifting of slaves to fight for freedom, . - A defender of the powerless and the oppressed.,

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