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Johann Sebastian Bach

( German composer, organist)

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Biography Johann Sebastian Bach
When life was famous as an organist and harpsichordist, and his composer's creativity was perceived by contemporaries in connection with the practical activity that occurs in the typical musician's 17-18 centuries. atmosphere of the church, court and city. Childhood years spent in Eisenach, in 1695-1702 he studied at Ohrdruf and Lüneburg. At the age of 17 played on the organ, clavier, violin, viola, sang in the choir, was an assistant cantor. In 1703-07 Neukirchen organist in Arnstadt, . in 1707-08 organist at Mühlhausen Blaziuskirhe, . in 1708 - 17 the court organist, . chamber musician, . in 1714 the court concertmaster in Weimar, . in 1717-23 court Kapellmeister at Köthen, . in 1723 - 50 cantor Tomaskirhe and urban muzyky director in Leipzig (1729 - 41 head Collegium musicum).,

. Bach - one of the greatest representatives of the world of humanistic culture
. Works by Bach, musician-wagon, distinguished vseohvatnostyyu genres (except opera), summarized the achievements of several centuries of musical art on the verge of baroque and classicism. Fluor national artists, Bach joined the tradition of the Protestant chorale with the traditions of the Austrian, Italian, French music schools. For Bach, the unsurpassed master of polyphony, characterized by unity of the polyphonic and homophonic, vocal and instrumental thinking, which explains the deep interpenetration of different genres and styles in his work.

. Leading genre of vocal-instrumental works by Bach - the spiritual cantata
. Bach created 5 annual cycles of cantatas, which are distinguished by belonging to the church calendar, the text sources (psalms, choral verse, 'free' poetry), on the role of the chorus, etc.. Secular cantatas best known 'Peasants' and 'Coffee'. Depleted dramatic cantata in translating the principles found in masses, 'Passion', 'high' mass h-moll, 'St. John Passion', 'St. Matthew Passion' was the culmination of centuries-old history of these genres. Central place in the instrumental works of Bach's organ music is. Synthesizing inherited from its predecessors (D. Buxtehude, AND. Pachelbel, D. Boehm AND. A. Reinke) experience of organ improvisation, . various variational methods and polyphonic compositions and contemporary principles concertizing, . Bach reinterpreted and updated traditional genres of organ music - Toccata, . fantasy, . passacaglia, . Choral Prelude,
. Artist virtuoso, one of the largest in its time connoisseurs keyboards, Bach created an extensive literature for Clavier. Among the clavier works occupy a prominent place 'WTC' - the first in the history of music experience in the artistic application of the developed at the turn of 17 - 18 cc. tempered scale. Greatest polifonist in fugues 'WTC' Bach has created unparalleled designs, a sort of school kontrapunktichnogo skill, which was a continuation and completion of the 'Art of Fugue', on which Bach worked for the past 10 years of life. Bach - author of one of the first concerts clavier-Italian concert (without orchestra), fully confirming the independent value Clavier as a concert instrument. Music by Bach for violin, . cello, . Flute, . Oboe, . instrumental ensemble, . orchestra - Sonata, . Suites, . Partita, . concerts - marks a significant expansion of expressive and technical capabilities of tools, . reveals a profound knowledge of tools and universalism in their treatment,
. 6 Brandenburg Concertos for various instrumental compositions, translating genre and compositional principles of concerto grosso, were an important step towards a classical symphony.

. In the life of Bach was published by a small portion of his works the true scope of the genius of Bach, strongly influenced the subsequent development of European musical culture, started to sink in only after half a century after his death
. Among the first judges - the founder bahovedeniya AND. N. Forkel (published in 1802 Essay on the life and works of Bach), K. F. Zelter, whose work to preserve and promote heritage led to the execution of Bach's 'St. Matthew Passion' running F. Mendelssohn 1829. This performance, which took History. value, was the impetus for the revival of Bach's works in 19 - 20 cc. In 1850, in Leipzig, Bach Society was founded

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