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Schumann, Robert Alexander

( Music)

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Biography Schumann, Robert Alexander
1810 - 1856
Refers to the 2-th generation of romantics. More acutely aware of the difference between the thin, sensitive kind of an artist and the world around. All his life he rebelled against the philistinism. This is manifested in music. Music Schumann is particularly acute psychological, penetrates deep into the state of the human soul. He is very finely reflected in the music change these states. It is present in direct contact and a gust of passionate immersion in the world of dreams. In many ways it reflected the properties of its nature - a duality.

An important property of Schumann's music - a fantasy, but it is - not popular fiction, but as if the world of his soul, visions, dreams, a very individualized. This is evident in the music of the critical. He was very gifted in the field of literature. He wrote novels, stories, and articles in the genre of short stories, plays, letters, dialogues and other works. The heroes of these articles were very unusual characters. He thought to himself 'David's fraternity' - society. Its members - davidsbyundlery. There he included Mozart, Paganini, Chopin, and Clara Wieck (his wife), and: Florestan and Eusebius. Florestan and Eusebius - are fictional names (it - like two halves of his personality, which argued among themselves). He used them as aliases. Maestro Raro reconciled dreamy Eusebius and Florestan stormy.

Schumann supported all the best in art. He first spoke of Chopin, supported by Berlioz, wrote articles about Beethoven. His last article was an article on Brahms. In 1839, Mr.. He found a symphony by Schubert - C-dur, and performed it, and in the 50 th year, has become one

organizers of the Beethoven Society. Works by Schumann associated with German romantic literature. His favorite poet - Jeanne Paul (real name - Richter). Impressed by the works of this writer was writing a play - 'Butterfly'. Loved the poet Hoffmann. Under the influence of his works was written 'Kreisleriana'. Greatly influenced by Heine. In his poems were written vocal cycles - 'Circle of Song' and the 'Dichterliebe'.

Schumann liked to use in their works carnival (because there is a change of characters). Schumann's musical language is very thin. Contact folk music is not the same as in Schubert. No explicit example. Tones more declamatory. Complicated harmonic language. The texture is thin, melodized and polyphonic. Rhythm capricious, fastidious.

. Schumann wrote many works: nearly 50 collections of piano pieces, . Abegg Variations on a Theme, . 'Butterfly', . 'Carnival', . symphony, . etudes, . 'Dancing davidsbyundlerov', . extravaganza, . 'Kreisleriana', . 'Vienna Carnival', . novelletty etc., . 3 Sonatas for Piano, . Fantasy, . more than 200 songs, . vocal cycles: 'Dichterliebe', . 'Circle of Song' on Heine, . 'Mirta', . 'Circle of Song' in verse Eyhendorfa, . 'Love and Life of Women' in Chamisso poems, . Spanish love songs, . songs from 'Wilhelm Meister' (Goethe), . 4 symphonies, . Piano, . cello and violin with orchestra, . Shtyuk Concerto for Piano and Orchestra, . Concerto Shtyuk for 4 Horns and Orchestra, . 3 string quartets, . piano quartet, . Piano Quintet, . 3 piano trios, . 2 sonatas for violin, . other chamber ensembles, . oratorio "Paradise and Perry ', . opera 'Genoveva', . music for dramatic productions, . 200 critical articles - featured articles about music and musicians.,

. Zwickau

. Schumann was born in the family publishing house
. Since childhood proven ability and literary and musical. Up to 16 years, Schumann did not know who he is. He studied at the school, wrote poetry, wrote comedies, dramas. Studied Schiller, Goethe, ancient literature. He organized a literary circle. Very fond Zhannom Paul. Under his influence, wrote a novel. With seven years of writing music. As a child, was impressed by the game pianist Moshelesa. First teacher - organist Kunsht. Under his leadership, Schuman has achieved great success. He studied the music of Mozart, Weber. He wrote musical sketches (and a person in music). He loved Schubert and wrote a few songs.

In 1828, Mr.. under the influence of mothers enrolled in the University of Leipzig at the Faculty of Law. Besides learning from Friedrich Wieck piano - 30 year. Schumann Paganini heard and wants to become a virtuoso. Later, he wrote on capriccios Paganini Etudes and Concert Etudes. Schumann formed a circle of music lovers (while studying at university). He wrote a cycle of plays 'Butterfly' for piano.

In 1829, Mr.. He transferred to the University of Heidelberg. In 1830, the cast. Studying at university, he traveled to Munich, where he met Heine, as well as in Italy. During this period, wrote: Variations 'Abegg', toccata, 'Butterfly', processing Paganini Caprices. After the university moved from Wick in Leipzig. Damage, outplayed hand. Started studying composition and transcriptions from Dorn.

30 s. Dawn piano works. Posted by: Symphonic Etudes, carnival, fantasy, fantastic play. Starts journalistic activities. 1-I article about Chopin 'take off my hat down in front of you gentlemen, a genius! ". In 1834, Mr.. founded the 'New Music Newspaper'. He played against the conservatism of the petty bourgeoisie, entertainment. They promoted by Berlioz, Liszt, Brahms, composers, Poland and Scandinavia. Schumann called for the creation of the German musical theater in the tradition of 'Fidelio' and 'Magic Arrow'.

Style all the articles was very emotional. In 1839, Mr.. Schumann found the score of the symphony C-dur Schubert, and others - Mendelssohn performed it. In 1840, Mr.. married Clara Wieck. Written many songs: 'Mirta', 'Love and Life of Women', 'Dichterliebe'.

. 40 th - early 50-ies brought the symphony, chamber ensembles, concerts for piano, violin, cello, oratorio "Paradise and Perry ', scenes from Goethe's Faust, music to Byron's Manfred
. In 1843, Mr.. Mendelssohn opened the Leipzig Conservatory and invited there by Schumann for piano, composition and reading scores. In 1844, Mr.. Schumann had to put aside the newspaper and music conservatory. I went to Russia as the husband of Clara Wieck. Russia was fashionable Mendelssohn and Italy. Value Schumann realized not many: Anton Rubinstein, Tchaikovsky, members of the 'Mighty Handful'. Disease progresses, and the family moved to Dresden. Shuman wants to place the head of musical theater, but does not work. Meeting with Wagner. Wagner's music was alien to Schumann.

1848. - Was a revolution in France and Germany. Posted 4 republican march, 3 men's choir on the revolutionary texts. After several years responding to the revolution in another. In 50g. Schumann's family went to Dusseldorf. They led the orchestra and choral societies.

53 g. - Acquaintance with Schumann Brahms. Last article on Schumann Brahms. In 1854, Mr.. Schumann attempted suicide. He wanted to drown himself, but was rescued. He was cured, but he went mad, and after 2 years of unsuccessful treatment in psychiatric hospital in 1856. Schumann died.

Piano works

Music psychological. It displays a different contrast condition and change of these states. Schumann was very fond of piano miniatures, as well as the cycles of piano miniatures, as they very well may be expressed in the contrast. Schumann refers to software. This program plays, often associated with literary images. They all have names, . which are a little strange for that time - 'Wind', . 'From chegoN', . Abegg Variations on a theme (this is his name familiar to girls), . letters of her name he used as a sheet (A, . B, . E, . G); 'Asch' - the name of the city, . where she was a former love of Schumann (these letters, . as a key included in the 'Carnival'),
. Schumann was very fond of the carnival of music, because of the spotty. For example: 'Butterflies', 'Hungarian Carnival', 'Carnival'. Variational method of development - 'Abegg', 'Symphonic Etudes "- a series of genre-specific variations on one theme, which is transformed from the funeral march (early) in the solemn march (end). Are called sketches, as in each new variation of the virtuoso etyudnye techniques. Symphonic them because the sound of a piano in them like an orchestra (tutti powerful, the selection of individual lines).


In 1834, Mr.. out 'New Music Newspaper' led Schumann. This 'Carnival' is like a musical embodiment of the aesthetic ideas of Schumann (the fight against philistinism). Genre linked to an essay by Schumann, in which correspondent Zhankiri comes to the ball to the editor, which show music news. This ball is a fight between davidsbyundlerami and philistines. Davidsbyundlery win.

'Carnival' - a cycle of 20 piano miniatures contrasting program, combined 4-name notes (Schumann called it 'miniature scenes on 4-notes). These notes - Asch (name of city) - A, Es, C, H. Sch - is also the first letters of the names of Schumann. These 4 notes exist in 3 combinations. These notes are dissolved at the beginning of each play. Therefore here only traces of variations, but variations on a theme.

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