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Vasily Vasilyevich Dark II

( Grand Prince of Moscow and Vladimir)

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Biography Vasily Vasilyevich Dark II
photo Vasily Vasilyevich Dark II
son of Grand Prince Vasily Dmitrievich I. Born in 1415, reigned from 1425 g. He was 10 years old when his father died. His nomination for the Grand-table could be considered and not legally sound: Will Dmitry Donskoy, his grandfather, contained the words, a valid claim Uncle B., Yuri Dmitrievich, at a great reign. Solution of the dispute between the uncle and nephew was dependent on the case from the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas, guardian of the family of Basil I. Based on it, the Metropolitan Photius Yuri bowed to the peace treaty (1425), in which he pledged not to seek the great reign of force, only the Khan Award was recognized authority in the event the Jury resumed its claims. Dependent Vitovta, the Moscow government did not protest held in 1425, Mr.. appointment of a special from western metropolitan. It was not difficult to obtain Vitold abdication (in 1428), Grand Prince of Moscow from an independent policy in Novgorod and Pskov. Yuri had formally (Collection of the State Literacy and treaties, t. I, N 43 - 44) to limit their possessions Galich and Vyatka, to renounce claims to the great reigning undertake not to take on his service in Moscow otezdchikov and t. n. In 1430, Mr.. Vytautas died; in Lithuanian great reigning sat Svidrigailov and property associated Yuri was quick to repudiate the contract in 1428, Mr.. In early 1431, Mr.. Yuri and Basil II were already in the Horde; litigation dragged on there for more than a year and ended in favor of Basil II. By chronicle story, Yuri was motivated by the will of the Don, Moscow boyar Ivan Dmitrievich Vsevolozhskiy protivostavil testament sovereign will of the khan, denying the legal value of "dead" letters. Basil II was put on the table Ordyn ambassador - the first time in Moscow. Yuri Khan was given a town of Dmitrov, soon (1432) taken away from Basil. In this. a critical moment Vsevolozhsky promise to marry his daughter was violated, and in 1433, Mr.. Basil II took the marriage with the daughter of Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich specific. In addition, at the wedding of Grand Duke, his mother, Sophia Vitovtovna roughly cost his son Yuri, Vasily skew. Offended Vsevolozhskiy defected to the Jury; Vasily Kosoy and his brother Dmitri, Dmitri Shemyaka and red went to his father. In April 1433, Mr.. 20 miles from Moscow Vasily II was defeated and took refuge in the fire, where he was captured. Of all the possessions left behind him one Kolomna. But disagreement among the winners of the Jury was forced to cede the great reign of Basil II (Collection of the State Literacy and treaties, t. I, N 49 - 50). Sons, Yuri did not lay down their arms and soon reconciled with them and Yuri. Basil II suffered defeat after defeat. In 1434, Mr.. he had to take refuge in Novgorod, Moscow was occupied by Yuri. The sudden death of Yuri again split the opponents of Basil II; younger brothers are not stuck to the eldest, Basil Kosomu, and declared itself the Grand Duke with the help of Basil II regained the great reigning. In 1435, Mr.. Kosoy was defeated on the river Kotorosl and associated contract. Regulation of Basil II was not, however, firmly. Strife, a few years in a row disrupted economic life of the Moscow Center, Moscow shaken fidelity of trade and industry, to seek peace. In Tver Shemyaka began to lean toward Kosoy (and was under suspicion in this cloistered). Kosoy himself in 1436, Mr.. breached the contract and spoke against Basil II. In an open battle, he was defeated and in captivity he was blinded, Shemyaka released and complained to preserve. Until now, going purely dynastic dispute, the second attack occurred feuds with both sides under the flag of the national principle. This is facilitated by two factors. Florentine union in 1439, Mr.. created a distinction between the Uniate (at first) and the Catholic Lithuania - and not changed the Eastern Orthodox Rus', at the same time strengthened the aggressive policy vostochnotatarskih hordes, . and Tatar element was to penetrate into the ruling circles of the Moscow Society,
. At the very early stages of pacification wars in the Moscow government has allowed a bold policy in relation to Veliky Novgorod, it ceased to recognize the prisoner with him in a difficult moment the treaty in 1435, . sent thither prince regent, . and in 1441, Mr.,
. military expedition led Novgorodians buy for 8000 rubles disadvantageous for them the world and formally renounce the conditions in 1435, Mr.. In 1442, Mr.. was "vzvergnuto unloved" and Shemyaka, which under the new conditions had nowhere to hide and no one to rely; held, however, reconciliation with the assistance of the Trinity Abbot. At the same time was not accepted by the union concluded a Florentine Metropolitan Isidor. Khan Ulu-Mahmet, ejected from the Horde to the Russian border, sat down in 1438, Mr.. in Belyov; Moscow troops besieged there, he was ready to accept any conditions, giving the rein to Basil II. But Moscow's military governor wanted to win - and was defeated by treachery sent to their aid Lithuanian governor. Ulu Mahmet seamlessly passed to Nizhny Novgorod, and in 1439, Mr.. made a devastating raid on Moscow, the Grand Duke managed to escape, the stone "city" had survived, but Posada and surroundings (up to Kolomna inclusive) is strongly affected. Nizhny Novgorod, he founded the Horde have Ulu Mahmeta, under siege. We Murom and Vladimir had to keep reinforce the garrison; between them wandered the residence of Grand Duke. In 1445, Mr.. managed to repulse the motion Mahmeta, believing that the security is temporarily secured, Basil II returned to Moscow to meet the Easter. Using the weakness of the garrisons, Mahmet surprise attack on the Basil II at the city of St. George and took him prisoner. Terms of liberation - a heavy ransom (200,000 rubles) and demanding suite Tatar elite - have created soil, . favorable to rise again Shemyaka: relying on the discontent in various segments of society, . He drew on his side of the princes of Tver and Mozhaisk,
. In February 1446. Basil II was captured in Trinity Monastery Prince Mozhaysk: Moscow busy Shemyaka. This brought Basil II and blinded. Supporters found him honorable reception in Lithuania. With the mediation of Bishop Iona of Ryazan, which promised Shemyaka Metropolitan, the new government managed to cause deception in Moscow children of Basil II; together with their father was imprisoned in Uglich. This massacre is not a firmer footing Shemyaka; focus on Lithuanian territory dissatisfied threatening major complications. At the church boyar council at the end of 1446. Shemyaka, influenced especially compromised Metropolitan Jonah, has agreed to release the blind Basil II (1447). Vologda was given to him in paternal and became a base immediately began the movement in his favor. Center it was moved to Tver, . When Abbot Cyril Belozersky Monastery Trifon allow Basil II of the oath Shemyaka, . and Tver Prince Boris behind the Shemyaka, . and held the betrothal of his daughter and son B., . Ivan (the future Grand Prince Ivan III); in Tver pulled and supporters of Basil II of Lithuania,
. Moscow Department, . always a strong supporter of the Grand authorities, . not miss the moment to rehabilitate himself and become the side of the strongest; Shemyaka departure from Moscow, gave her hand wavering metropolitan population, . in their governing trade circles exclusively peaceful minded,
. A small detachment of supporters of Basil II, . secretly penetrated to Moscow, . would not be worth close Shemyaka people took over and lead to a lot of swearing in Moscow (oath Shemyaka could be abolished only the highest local, . ie metropolitan, . ecclesiastical authority),
. Situation Shemyaka from now deteriorated rapidly, and in 1448, Mr.. he was forced to renounce the throne of Moscow formally. His ally, Prince Mozhajskij, as well as the Prince of Ryazan, Bohr and Vereisky were related instruments subordinating. At the same time the official dedication of Jonah in the Metropolitan Cathedral Church, in the message, . notify, . Jonah conjures all, . who have not yet moved to the side of Basil II, . brow beat the restoration of the Great Prince, . under threat of excommunication of the church (Acts of the East. ", . I, . N 40),
. In 1449, when Shemyaka again spoke against Basil II, the campaign had been one of Moscow's troops almost Crusade: the Grand Duke went metropolitan and the bishops. In 1450, Mr.. Shemyaka was finally exhausted by Galich and fled to Novgorod. From there in 1452, Mr.. he made a sortie, ended in defeat. In 1453, Mr.. He died suddenly. Version of the poisoning of his Moscow diligence, there are signs that may be considered plausible. Mozhajskij prince fled to Lithuania, and Mojaisk attached to Moscow in 1454, Mr.. Two years later the same happened with Bohr Prince. Came the turn and up to Novgorod, Novgorod army defeated, . Novgorod was reduced to obedience to the Grand Duke of unusually severe conditions: 10000 indemnity, . cancellation veche literacy (reading and writing do not be alone forever "), . replacement of the Novgorod print stamp Grand Duke ( "Acts of Michael,
. Exp. ", I, N 58, a contract in Yazhelbitsy). This was the beginning of the end of Novgorod's independence. The degree of stimulation of Novgorod can be judged from the fact that one of his visits Vasily in Novgorod (1460) in the Chamber discussed the murder of Grand Duke (Complete Collection of Russian Chronicles, t. VI, Sof. 2-I). In 1458 - 9 years and Vyatka, in strife 30-ies was standing on the side of George and his sons, was forced to "finish off my forehead on the whole will of the Grand Duke". In the 50's years as the Prince of Ryazan principality and instructed his son in Moscow trusteeship, manifested in sending governors there. The results of the reign of Basil II can be characterized as a series of major successes: an increase in the territory of Moscow's great reign, . independence and a new formulation of the Russian Church, . update the idea of Moscow autocracy and internal consolidation of the power of Grand Duke,
. In 1450, Mr.. Ivan, the eldest son of Basil II, was made by his co-regent, and his name appears on government edicts. All these germs, full flower blooming in the reign of Ivan III. - Vasily died March 27, 1462, Mr.. from suhotnoy disease. Married to Princess Mary Yaroslavna in 1433, he had children: Yuri (who died before 1462), Ivan, Yuri, Andrew Great, Seeds, Boris, and Andrew's younger daughter, Anne, married to Prince of Ryazan Vasily Ivanovich. B. R.

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Vasily Vasilyevich Dark II, photo, biography
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