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S. Matveev Artamon

( Famous Moscow diplomat)

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Biography S. Matveev Artamon
(1625 - 1682). First strelets head, since 1654, Mr.. - Steward and Colonel strelets, in 1671, Mr.. - Dumnyi nobleman and governor Serpukhov, in 1672,. - Okolnichy, in 1673, Mr.. - Middle Okolnichy, in 1674, Mr.. - Boyar. His father was a clerk and is well known that in 1634, Mr.. traveled to Turkey, "the partners" with the GI. Korobyina, and in 1645, Mr.. - In Persia, "the partners" the same with VS. Volkonski. From father Matveev received considerable estates. In the thirteenth year, was taken to the palace "in zhite" and brought together with the Tsarevich Alexei. Convergence turned into lasting friendships. Upon entry to the throne, Alexei Mikhailovich Matveev soon begins to receive assignments of responsibility, although quite a long time remains unseen in the rank of musketeers head. During the Polish campaign in 1654, Mr.. He participates in the negotiations for the surrender of Smolensk, in 1854 the same year went to the Ukraine in the "Great Embassy" VV. Buturlina and is present at the famous Pereiaslav Rada; in 1656 - 57 was twice sent to Lithuania and Poland for talks with the hetman Korwin Gosiewski electing Aleksei Mikhailovich to the Polish throne, . and in between in talks with the hetman of Little Russia Vygovsky,
. In 1666, Mr.. In 1669, Mr.. Matveev again in Little Russia, which sent along with i.i. Romodanovsky in mind the troubles occurring there and the result was ruling Glukhovskoy glad that a long time to determine the position of Little Russia and in the formulation of which Matveev, undoubtedly, played a major role. Shortly after returning Matveeva appointed Chief Malorossiyskogo order instead of Ordin-Nashchokin and since that time has shown its own initiative in complex and intricate issues related to Little Russia relations. In 1671, Mr.. Matveev replaced Ordin-Nashchokin and superintendence Ambassadorial order, after which all Russia's foreign policy moves in his hands. Matveeva situation becomes especially strong since then, as the king Alex married his niece and ward, NK. Naryshkina. In the last years of the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich Matveev - the most powerful of the king's. During management of Little Russia and embassy orders he "perpetrate, . in his own words, . great profit "the sovereign's treasury: to build a pharmacy and kruzhechny yard, . and from the proceeds of them, "made the court stone - Ambassadorial, . Greek, . shop ", . and, . moreover, . annually delivered to the Privy and other orders of 60 thousand rubles,
. The important thing was his new organization Food Moscow troops stationed in Ukraine: instead of grain reserves are there to send money from Moscow, which was much more economical and convenient. Matveev also expanded the operations of the Moscow Mint. In 1672,. Matveev concluded a new contract with the Armenian company in the Persian silk trade, which granted the contract, compared with 1667 g. significant benefits to the treasury and the Russian merchants. If it also was sent to China H. Spafari requested to draw up a detailed description of the way from Tobolsk to the Chinese border. Matveev, of course, has implications for other aspects of management, although it defies precise definition. - Shortly after the death of Alexei Mikhailovich Matveev, . on the intrigues of his enemies - Miloslavskys, . subjected disgrace: under the pretext of grievances, . if one of them caused by foreign ambassadors, . Matveyev was removed from the superintendence Ambassadorial order and sent to the voivod Verkhoturye,
. Immediately after he was accused of Black Arts and deprived without a trial and the estates of the boyars, with the road, from Kazan, was sent into exile in Pustozersk. In Pustozersk Matveev spent about 4 years in very difficult conditions, . wrote here Tsar Fedor Alekseevich exculpatory petitions, . also requested assistance from the patriarch and a powerful nobles, but has made only slight relief of his fate: he was transferred to Mezen,
. Only in 1681, at the request of the second wife of Feodor Alekseevich, MM. Apraksin have Matveyev godfather, he was transferred to Mr.. Luch, and at the same time was declared his innocence, and he was returned for the remaining distribution of the former "possessions" and even granted to the new extensive patrimony - s Upper Landeh (Suzdal district). Since his election to the throne of Peter, when the party Naryshkins triumphed, Matveev was immediately summoned to Moscow, where he was to become the mainstay of the new government. He arrived in Moscow on May 11, 1682, and 15 th occurred strelets rebellion and Matveev became one of the first of his victims: he was with wounds archers in front of the royal family. - Matveev was one of the prominent and educated people of his time. He knew how to appreciate the advantages of Western culture and willingly keep in touch with foreigners. Evidence of this is the situation of his house: the foreign mirrors, paintings, clocks intricate designs, painted ceilings. Acquainted with the theatrical art of German settlement, Matveev of his serfs was a troupe of actors with a mandate to teach them German, and then to amuse the king of theatrical performances, when he came to visit him. The house Matveeva women were free to come in a male society, and thus the king Alex could get acquainted with NK. Naryshkina. Matveyev was no stranger to literary work: he was, among other things, "History of Russian rulers, famous in military victories in the faces" and "History of the election and coronation as Tsar Michael Fyodorovich (not extant). Restrained by nature, Matveev very carefully used the friendship of Alexei Mikhailovich, could not hurt pride other. Restraint and caution characterize him as a statesman. In his diplomatic career, he has steadily kept a certain system. Before the Russian diplomacy are two difficult reconciled, the question - the relationship to Sweden and Poland. After, . as an attempt to resolve both issues simultaneously wars 1654 - 55 years ended in failure, . - Had to choose, or the acquisition of the Baltic coast by a new war with the Swedes, . but with the sacrifice of Russian interests in the Ukraine in favor of Poland, . or vice versa - defending the rights of all in the Ukraine, . but the abandonment of the species on the Baltic Sea,
. Matveev decisively chose the second program, and at this Ordin-faced Nashchokin, who insisted on the first. Since the conclusion of the armistice Andrusovo, . affixed to Russia almost impossible condition - a concession to the Poles Kiev, . begins between the two diplomats struggle, . not taken, . true, . violent forms, . but the constant and persistent, . ended in complete victory Matveeva,
. In contrast Ordin-Nashchokin, . guided in malorossiyskom question solely by considerations of profit, . Matveev saw in the accession Little Russia to Moscow, the national landmark case, . "hooked, . as he put, . branch to a decent root ", . and this has found full sympathy themselves from Tsar Alexis,
. Hence - his gentleness and patience when dealing with representatives of Little Russia, . desire to build there in the masses, . - Properties, . earned him wide popularity in Ukraine, . where he explicitly called "Dobrodeya and batka, . "mercy to all gosudarskoy Ukraine unrelenting supplicant",
. Hence, too, his tendency to go towards Sweden, which at that time looking for a lasting peace with Moscow, and in which Matveev expected to find support in the struggle with Poland. From links Matveev wrote in one of its petition Fedor Alekseevich, . ignorant of its policies in the Ukraine: "to those of all the boyars and Governor, . which are now at your mercy to gosudarskoy, . shlyus, . I, . your slave, . was with them at your sovereign affairs, . and nowhere on me, . your slave, . chelobitstva, . appearances and izvetov in any case not happened ", . - And, . apparently, . he had a right to say so, . times even his enemies could bring against him only ridiculous accusation of Black Arts,
. - See. History of the innocent imprisoned nobleman Matveeva; Sakharov "Notes of Russian people"; Eingorn "Essays on the history of Little Russia"; Matveev "A.S. Matveev "(" Russian Thought ", 1901," 8 and 9); Forsten "Dealings Sweden and Russia in the second half of the XVII century." ( "Journal of the Ministry of National Education, 1898); pinch" Boyar A.S. Matveev, "" a report of the embassy Lizeki "(" Journal of the Ministry of National Education ", 1837," 11).

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