Murav'ev-Amur (Count Nikolai Nikolaevich)( Statesman)
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Biography Murav'ev-Amur (Count Nikolai Nikolaevich)
Born August 11, 1809. After graduating from the course in the Page Corps, served in the Guard, took part in the Turkish campaign of 1828 - 29 years and in hostilities against the Poles (1831). In 1833, M. retired and four years engaged in farming on the estate of his father. When Gen. EA. Golovin was appointed commander of the Caucasian body and a separate chief superintendent of the civil part and border affairs in the Caucasus, M. was identified to him for special assignments (1838) and participated in expeditions against the highlanders. From 1840 to 1844 M. was head of a branch of the Black Sea coastline and contributed to subduing the tribe ubyhov. In 1846, M. was appointed governor of the Tula. In a report on the first of its audit, he pointed out the inconvenience of prison facilities, the decline of agriculture, for which he designed vosposobleniya establishment of the Thule society, the provincial agriculture. The first of governors, he raised the issue of emancipation of the peasants: Nine landowners have signed the prepared, under the inspiration of Moscow, the Emperor addressed: the case remained without motion, but the emperor drew attention to Moscow, as "liberal, a democrat". Nevertheless, he was appointed, in 1847, Governor General of Eastern Siberia. He is the initiative in the return of the Amur, the assigned to China in 1689. Although we meet in St. Petersburg resistance, M. achieved, that the fact that studies the mouths of the Amur River was recognized as sovereign. January 11, 1854 by Emperor Nicholas I was given M. the right to conduct all relations with the Chinese government on the delimitation of the eastern suburbs, and are allowed to make an alloy of troops on the Amur. May 16, 1858 M. concluded with China Aigun treatise, which Amur to its mouth became a border between Russia and China. M. received the title of Count of the Amur. He made attempts to repopulate the wilderness along the Amur, but these attempts were not successful, further settlement occurred on the addition of the Trans-Baikal Cossacks, and voluntary resettlement to the Amur stopped. Also unsuccessful were settlements on the river. Mae, in 1851. Failed M. and the device proper shipping traffic along the Amur. He secured the release of Nerchinsk peasants from compulsory work in the mines and formed from them Cossack army, which was settled on the banks of the Amur. In 1861, M. left the post of governor-general, due to the failure of his project on the division of eastern Siberia to the two general-governor, and was appointed a member of the Council of State. For twenty years before his death (Paris, November 18, 1881), he only occasionally visited Russia to participate in the meetings of the Council of State. In 1891 in the city of Khabarovsk, on the banks of the Amur, erected M. monument. The acquisition of the Amur River was the subject of lively debate in the magazines 1858 - 1864 period (see. Zavalishina article in the "Russian Antiquities", in 1881? 9 and 10: "Amur case and its influence in Eastern Siberia and the State"). In 1891 came an essay and. Barsukova: "Graf H. N. M.-Amur in his letters, official documents, contemporary stories and printed sources ". In "Report on the awarding of prizes Makarios, Metropolitan of Moscow" (St. Petersburg, 1895) Professor Butsinsky reacted negatively to M. In defense of the last VP. Efimov published a pamphlet: "Nat. N. N. M.-Amur to justice professor Butsinsky "(St. Petersburg, 1896). - Wed. Schumacher's article "On the history of the acquisition of the Amur" ( "Russian Archive", 1878, "11); Filipsona memories of" Russian Archive "(1883, No 6); memories B. Milutin ( "Historical Journal, 1888," 11 and 12), a biographical sketch of M. Venyukova ( "Russian Antiquities", 1882, No. 2) A. Zaborinsky "Nat. NN. Murav'ev-Amur in 1846 - 56 years "(" Russian Antiquities ", 1883); A. Baranov, "On the River Amur in 1854 - 55 years, memories of officers from the detachment NN. Muraveva "(" Russian Antiquities ", 1891).