Stepan Razin Timofeyevich( popularly known under the name of Stenka Razin, head of the national movement, for which approved the name of rebellion Stenka Razin.)
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Biography Stepan Razin Timofeyevich
The core of this movement was the Don and Volga Cossacks, which consisted of her among many disgruntled Moscow Government and Moscow's orders. "The whole procedure was then Russia, management, relationship classes, their rights, financial life, - says NI. Kostomarov ( "Mon.", II, 205) - all gave the Cossacks of food in the movement of popular discontent, and the entire half of the XVII century was the era of cooking Stenka Razin ". The situation of the peasants worsened: the freedom of navigation has been completely destroyed, and the farmer, along with a slave, was brought to the full arbitrariness of the owner. Residents of the townsmen and the black townships were no better off, they were burdened with various duties, crafts and occupations they were surrounded by a variety of duties, failure to perform duties threatened to ruinous fines and severe punishment. Abuse governor and military men still more to the plight of the people. When the existence of bribery as a normal phenomenon, the proceedings did not constitute a guarantee for the weak and poor. All this prompted the Russian people to leave the former place of residence and flee in the wilderness, to the Cossacks in the freebooters. Shoots of these done before the convention in Russia, that the petitions of the inhabitants are often mentioned, in the form of threats that they will scatter apart. The Government has taken measures against the shoots, threatened for their most severe punishments, but this did not help the cause, all increased the number of fugitives, discontent grew, and resulted, finally, in a rally Stenka Razin. According to Izvestiya foreigners, is not confirmed, however, neither the government acts, not people's Duma, the elder brother Stenka Razin was hanged in 1665,. Prince Yuri Dolgoruky for having willfully left the campaign against the Poles with a detachment of the Don Cossacks, over which was the chieftain. Younger brother Stepan Razin was Frol or Frolka, his inseparable companion. About life Stenka to the moment when he appears in Cherkassk headed Udaltsov, consisting mainly of ragamuffins, always in the set collected on the Don, almost nothing is known. In the spring of 1661, Mr.. the army sent him to Kalmyks persuade them to serve the Tsar of Muscovy and support of the Don Cossacks against the Crimean Khan. In the autumn of that year, Stepan Razin went on a pilgrimage to the Solovetsky monastery and the road was in Moscow. In 1667, Mr.. there heard rumors about Stepan as a dangerous man. Collecting Udaltsov, Razin wanted to swim with them on the Azov Sea to plunder the Turkish coast, but Cherkasky Ataman Roots Yakovlev did not allow this and for some time kept the Cossacks in obedience to the Tsar of Muscovy. Then Stenka sailed up the Don Cossacks, robbing the rich and robbing their home. Reaching the place where Don is moving closer to the Volga, where he laid the camp (near the city Panshin, between the rivers Silence and Ilovli), called Riga. Gunpowder and Lead Cossacks received from the townspeople - Voronezh, for money or in exchange for all kinds of rubbish. When the rumor of the appearance of the Cossack camp came to the Tsarina, began correspondence between Moscow initial human beings, but no serious action against the Cossacks, no one took. Razin meanwhile moved to the Volga, and here is probably not far from Kamyshin, gave a new mill. His squad had a Cossack unit was divided into hundreds, tens, of hundreds commanded the captain, over a dozen - Foreman. Stenka Razin was commander, Captain - Ivashka Chernoyarets. At this time, spring caravan of ships sailed from Nizhny Novgorod to Astrakhan. There were state-owned plane, with the exiles, ehavshimi to live in Astrakhan, Moscow vessel rich Shorin, vezshee state-owned grain; Court patriarchal and other individuals. Stenka attacked the caravan; archers he did not resist. The caravan was plundered, the initial people were killed, exiled released to the wild; laborer (yaryzhnym) Stenka said, releasing them into the will: "I came just to beat the boyars, so wealthy gentlemen, and with the poor and simple ready, like a brother to all share ". Then Stenka went to Tsaritsyn, but did not take him, but only frightened the governor, who obediently fulfilled all his requirements, issued an anvil and forge fur tackle. We Stenka was now already 35 boats with 1500 people, and he sailed past the Black Ravine, met, routed and engraved Moscow Beklemisheva governor, entered the Caspian Sea and from there the river has reached Yaikom Yaitsky town. All this happened in the summer of 1667. Yaitsky town was captured wits: strelets head Yatsyna Stenka admitted only to the church to pray, but included with comrades opened the gates and let the rest of the Cossacks. Yatsyna and 170 other musketeers were executed, others were given the freedom to go where they want. They went to Astrakhan, but Stenka caught up with them, a part broke, and the other forced to join his group. Summer Razin Yaitsky stayed in town, and in September went to the mouth of the Volga Tatars and the riots here, and then robbed the Turkish vessels in the Caspian Sea. Fearing defeat, Kalmyk, roamed between Yaikom and Volga, entered into friendly relations with Razin. In November came to him messengers from the Don, with a letter the emperor and exhortation troops left behind from stealing and to return to the Don. Stenka received the envoys with honor and let go unharmed, but holding, said: "When I continue to charter the sovereign's will, I am the great sovereign guilt will bring". At this time, Astrakhan voivod Khilkov, actions which the Moscow government was displeased, had been replaced and his place was sent to Prince Prozorovskii. He also sent two envoys to Razin, with exhortations to bring a fault, only one of them returned to the prince Prozorovsky, and another was thrown into the water. In the spring of 1668, Mr.. Stenka went to sea, but the Astrakhan governor could not calm down. From the Don, led by 700 new brave, climbed Seryozhka Krivoy, smashed against a detachment was sent to musketeers, and went to Razin in the sea, then come Protokin Alyosha, Alyosha Convict with equal units. Stenka this time robbed the Dagestan coast, ruined the city and turned them, for example, Derbent, a heap of ruins. In Rasht Stenka offered his services to the Persian Shah. Negotiations on this matter was delayed, yet the inhabitants Rasht covertly attacked the Cossacks, and they have killed 400 people. Razin sailed from Rasht in Farabat and the inhabitants of this city vented his defeat. Five days Cossacks peacefully traded, and on the sixth Stepan Timofeyevich adjusted the hat on his head. It was a sign as agreed: Cossacks rushed at the defenseless people, some of them killed, some captured and then peddling with Persians, giving a Persian for three, four Christians. Here wintered Razin. In spring 1669 he sailed to the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea and pogroms truhmenskie uluses, losing his companion Dauntless Seryozha Krivoy. Cossacks settled on the island of Pork. This summer, fell upon them, the Persian fleet, but suffered a complete defeat. Chief of Navy, managers Khan, escaped, as his son and beautiful daughter taken prisoner, the latter became the concubine of Razin. August 25 Razin came to Astrakhan, and gave himself up, putting horsetail and banners in mandative hut. Cossacks were promised that will hand all the prisoners Persians, will be given a gun, release the Russian military men, without delay. Instead, they were allowed to select six elected and sent to Moscow to apply before the king on the complete remission. Governors of provinces would be obtained from the Cossacks plundered all the goods at the Persians, but they did not succeed, but the goods were so many that a pound of silk sold at that time to 18 cents. On the joys Razin feast, make merry, and skating on the Volga. During one of these riding, . flushed with wine, . Razin was on the edge of Struga, . grabbed his Persian mistress, and threw her into the Volga River with the words: "Take Mother Volga! you gave me a lot of silver and gold, and all good, . gave honor and glory, . and I'll have no thanked "This episode tells not only the German Strauss, . witness rebellion Razin, . but popular legend,
. Charm person swashbuckling chieftain Stepan Timofeevich all grew and grew. In the popular rumor, he becomes a magician, in which Tsaritsin guns are not fired when the governor wanted to open fire on the Cossacks. September 4, 1669 Stenka with his Cossacks sailed from Astrakhan, the Don. Governors of provinces gave him an escort, and leave inspired him to the road no one is incited to the Don and did not accept those who would molest him, or he may incur the wrath of the great monarch. In the Black Ravine and Tsaritsyn magistrates sent the letter, so that there would not sell wine, and the Cossacks were not allowed into the city. Execute it from there the governor could not afford. Razin entered Tsaritsyn, nearly killed governor Unkovsky, released from prison convicts, opened taverns. Many clung to him. When he escorted Stenka tenant Leonti Plokhova demanded his extradition fugitive, Razin replied: "The Cossacks did not lead such that fugitive people to give". Astrakhan voivod Prince Prozorovskii sent German Vaderosa with a similar requirement. Razin terribly furious. "How dare you, . - He shouted, . - Come to me with such disrespectful words? So I gave his friends, . are bothering me for love and priyatstva! You still dare to face the disgrace! Ok! Tell me your voivod, . I'm not afraid of him, . nor anybody above him,
. Wait a minute: Here I am with him again and lead svizhus account! Fool he, . sort of a coward! He now looks forward to his strength and fighting nose up, . but still wants to treat me like a slave, . when I was born a free man! My strength and power more, . than he,
. I'll pay these worthless, according to burst into tears, and I'll show them how to take me without honor, if so-so, some Prostyakov! Stenka kept its threat. Going to the Don, he was on an island between Kagalnitskaya and Vedernikovskoy stanitsas arranged Kagalnik town and surrounded by its shaft. This he called his wife from Cherkassy Frola and her brother, who had gone to him secretly. Don represented, thus, the two camps: the chieftain in Cherkassk was Roots Yakovlev, and in Kagalnik - Stepan Razin. Richness of the Cossacks Razin and charm of the personality of the leader increased the number of its adherents. In Quasimodo in 1670 came Cherkassk tenant Gerasim Evdokimov with the king's gracious word and was received with due honor the terms, which convened Roots Yakovlev. But on Monday, arrived in Cherkassk Stenka Razin. When Yakovlev called on Tuesday for a range of choice of the Cossacks, who had to send to Moscow, the range was Stenka and berated the ambassador, saying that he was not sent from the king, and the boyars to spy for them, and communicate about it in Moscow. Evdokimova, and then some of the Cossacks who resisted such treatment with the king's messenger, was thrown into the Don. Stenka became uncontrollably dominate Cherkassk. A religious man, he has shown, however, suspicion and hatred against the priests, "the king of pilgrims". He attributed these words: "at that church?" What the priests? Marry, or what? But not all the same: become a couple near the tree, yes proplyashite around it - here and were married ". Say Stenka well done: recruiting young people, led to a willow tree, made them in pairs danced around him and then insisted that they were from this husband and wife. From Cherkasskaya Razin went up to Don Papshinu town. This came to him Vaska Us, famed for about four years ago, when he was with a crowd of fugitive peasants ruined landlords and patrimonial in the Tula and Voronezh field. Razin made him his captain. Available Stenka was now about 7 thousand Cossacks. He gathered a circle and announced that he goes on Tsaritsyn. Authorizing the siege of the city Vaska Usu, Stenka Yedisan defeated the Tatars. Tsaritsyn was taken by treachery residents. Voevoda Turgenev, who replaced Unkovsky, was locked in a tower, but was captured, mutilated and thrown into the river. Razin strengthened Tsaritsyn and collecting terms, Cossacks announced its intention - to go up the Volga under the tsar of the city, displaying a governor or to go to Moscow against the boyars. At that time became known that the top of the Volga were archers, and the bottom has sent military men to the Black Yar, Astrakhan voivod Prozorovskii. Stenka from the river, and land-mounted Cossacks attacked the musketeers, have settled in cash island, 7 miles from Tsaritsyn. 500 musketeers were killed, more than three hundred Stenka took their ships as rowers expelled Prozorovskii, under the command of Prince Lvov. There were about 4 thousand people, and they all went over to his father - the Liberator Stepan Timofeevich: still in Astrakhan emissaries of Razin sufficiently prepared the ground for this. Then Stenka went not to the upper city, and in Astrakhan, where he waited for his people. Prince Prozorovskii cared about strengthening the city with the help of foreigners, especially Butler, captain of the first Russian ship "Eagle", who then stood in Astrakhan. Only two days the siege lasted, June 24 Astrakhan was already in the hands of the Cossacks. Voevoda was wounded and then thrown from the belfry by Razin. Many people were executed, in the Holy Trinity monastery in a mass grave were buried 441 corpses. The city was sacked. Razin ordered to burn all the papers and boasted that he will burn all the works in Moscow at the top, t. e. in the palace of the Emperor. How Tsaritsyn, and Astrakhan, were Cossacks device: the inhabitants were divided into thousands, hundreds, tens, with the elected commander, captain, captains, and foremen; Cossack affairs were discussed in terms of. Three weeks spent Stenka in Astrakhan, and every day drunk. Every day, there were bloody and fun. Astrakhan people to become embittered fury upon all who belonged to the upper classes. To please the crowd Stenka traveled through the city and condemning to death anyone who did not suit her: some cut, others maimed, drowned third. Those killed were the sons of Prince Prozorovskiy: Metropolitan Joseph was spared, although he was a close friend of the late governor, he played, after the capture of Astrakhan, a sort of passive role. Wives and daughters of nobles beaten, captains and clerks Razin was issued for the Cossacks, and the priests were ordered to marry not for the bishop's blessing, and the Press Ataman. Metropolitan silent; the name day of the Tsarevich Feodor Alekseevich he even called or allowed to dinner Stenka and all the senior Cossack. Joining in Astrakhan chieftain Vaska Usa, half of Astrakhan and Moscow musketeers and two men with each decade of the Don Cossacks, Razin with the rest went up the Volga. The troops he had no more than ten thousand, but he hoped that it will increase at least ten times. Stenka took Saratov; voivod was drowned, the nobles and clerks people killed in the city introduced a Cossack unit. In early September Razin reached Simbirsk. At the same time his agents were scattered throughout the state, arousing the people and the army under Simbirsk Razin was significantly increased. Came to him runaway peasants, Cheremis, Chuvash, Mordvinians. Boyar Miloslavskii locked himself in the town and courageously withstood the siege. Around October came to his assistance with Prince Yuri Baryatinsky. October 1 between Baryatinsky and Razin occurred the first battle, but after three days of the second. Stenka was routed, dropped to their own farmers, Chuvash Cheremisses, and himself with the Cossacks sailed down the Volga. When the rebels saw, . that the Cossacks left them, . then rushed to the Volga, . to escape, but Baryatinsky attacked them, . Many were killed or drowned and more than 600 people were taken prisoner and immediately were executed without trial: some quartered, . others shot, . most hanged,
. Residents of suburban settlements came to confess. Baryatinsky punished them with his whip on one person for each suburb, and the rest just sworn. Meanwhile, the activities of the dispatched Razin agents have been particularly successful within the present-day provinces of Nizhny Novgorod, Tambov, Penza, she entered the Moscow, Novgorod and even to the White Sea. It was easy to stir oppressed people promises to deliver them from oppression. As the purpose of his campaign Razin exhibited destruction of the boyars, nobles, clerks of people, eradicate all chinonachaliya power, the establishment of the whole of Russia Cossacks and universal equality. "I do not want to be king - said Razin, - I want to live with you as a brother". Knowing the respect of the Russian people to the identity of the king, Stepan himself outwardly respected him, but actually tried his best to discredit the king in the eyes of the people. For this he used the names of Tsarevich Alexei Alekseevich, died Jan. 17 of that year, and the Patriarch Nikon, defrocked, and exiled to a remote Belozersky Monastery. Fitted out two vessels, one covered in red, the other - black cloth, and started a rumor that the first coming prince, but on the other - Patriarch Nikon, that the prince is not dead, but escaped from his father's anger and the boyars, Stepan Timofeyevich is to elevate him to the throne. Some Cherkasky Cossack, taken prisoner by Cossacks, was involuntarily forced to play the role of Prince. Bunt blazed across the space between the Oka and Volga: the peasants in the villages exterminated landlords and shop and go to the Cossacks in the cities residents clung to the rebels and imposed a Cossack unit. Oblihovannye clerks men and magistrates, t. e. those in which there were many complaints, exterminated, and were approved by the intact. From Simbirsk revolt spread, mainly in two directions: to the west - on the current provinces of Simbirsk, Penza and Tambov, in the north-west - in the provinces Simbirsk and Nizhniy Novgorod. The first militia under the command of Bears Kharitonov, separated from Razin near Simbirsk and headed for the Korsun. Residents of this town landed the rebels, and with them went to beat the landlords in the villages and hamlets. First resistance, although not for long, had Saransk: the city still was taken, the governor and martial people killed. From Saransk Kharitonov went to Penza, whose inhabitants had been killed and the governor took his Cossacks. This came from Saratov, a new detachment of rebels under the command of Don Cossack deserter, Vaska Fedorova. From Penza rebels went to Narovchat. Nizhnelomovtsy over to the Cossacks and sent to his Narovchat governor Andrew Beijing, which, as oblihovanny, was raised on spears and slain. From Nizhny Lomov Cossacks went to the top, then Kadomsky County. Here's to Kharitonov and Fedorov landed new Cossack detachments under the command of atamans Bears Shilov. In each village, through which passed the Cossacks, they were taken by a peasant from the house, to pester him as the Tatars and Mordvinians. Another detachment was sent from the Razin Simbirsk, under the command of Ataman Maxim Osipov, who pretended to be Prince Alexei. This unit took Alatyr Kurmysh, Yadrin, Kozmodemyansk, е│yskava. Almost everywhere, the Cossacks greeted with open arms. I Osipova was already about 15 thousand people Mordovians, Cheremisses, Russian peasants, and about a hundred of the Don Cossacks - comrades Razin. Makarevsky Unzha Monastery (on the left side of the Volga), resisted and was taken only after the second attack. Private belongings of people, cast in a monastery on the preservation, were ransacked, but nothing monastic rebels have not touched. Taking the monastery, the rebels established their camp in the village Murashkin. This sent nizhegorodtsam Osipova call to her, saying that the city will be handed over, the governor and the clerks people killed. In these places the revolt in general caused great sympathy among the people. Osipov was already ready to go to the Bottom, as received from Stenka order to go with all his forces to him: Stenka at the time was divided Baryatinsky near Simbirsk. While all these events occurred in the Volga region, the brother Stepan, Frolka, sailed up the Don and attacked Korotoyak; came to the rescue Prince Romodanovsky gave him to take the city. Revolt meanwhile echoed in other suburban shelves. Chuguyiv excited, but the revolt was tamed Sumy Colonel Kondratiev and died at the beginning. And the attempt was unsuccessful revolt on the left side of the Volga, in the county of Galich. Some Cossack Ilyushka attacked Unzhu, broke jail, released criminals, revolted villages and hamlets, but not for long: soon he was defeated by a detachment of the Moscow military men. The excitement reached Solovetsky monastery, where they found ready material in the form of resentment against Nikon's reforms. Cossacks Razin were taken with the participation, and they were removed from the monks and Balti Affairs, was elected the heads of their Faddeyku tanner and Ivashka Sarafanova, taught not to obey the church and not to recognize the king. After the defeat of Razin, the number of Cossacks in Solovki further increased. - Pacification revolt Moscow governors, after the defeat Stenka under Simbirsk, was as successful as, and cruel. According to one contemporary, foreign, governor, taming the rebellion, without pity burned villages and hamlets, were killed indiscriminately men, turned them into slavery. Total killed up to 100 thousand people, not counting those executed by the court. Prince Yuri Dolgoruky stood in Arzamas, at a time when the rebels took Makarevsky Monastery. Mutiny encircled it from the south, north and east. To restrain the pressure on the rebels Arzamas, he moved to the offensive and sent Shcherbatova with Leontiev Murashkin to the village, where stood the main rebel forces in the edge of the Volga. October 22, three miles from Murashkina, there was a battle. The rebels were defeated, they lost 21 cannon and 61 captive. The latter were immediately executed. October 24 Lyskovitsy surrendered, and 28 th governor came to the bottom and brutally massacred nizhegorodtsam, hanged or beheaded some, quartered other. Then they set about subduing the Nizhny Novgorod district, 10 November Leontiev rebels struck by Klyuchischami. After these successes in the north Dolgoruky moved troops and to the south, under the command of governor Likharev, who triumphantly entered the northern part of the current province of Tambov. There is from the south were governor Khitrovo and Pashkov. The main center of excitement was here Shatskii County. He managed to calm after November 19. Along the way, cleansed Likharev, walked Dolgoruky. December 4, he was at Temnikova, where the priest hung and burned in the wooden house with a witch charodeystvennymi papers and roots; December 7 came in Krasnoslobodsk and there hung 56 rebels. Entering into the main brothel rebellion - the current Penza province - Dolgoruky received an order from Moscow to connect with Prince Yuri Baryatinsky, who went from Simbirsk, where he defeated Stenka in Alatyrskij County. Dolgorukogo Attention is now focused on military actions around Krasnoslobodsk. In the east, to pacify Cheremis and Chuvash, was sent to Prince Daniel Baryatinsky. He took Tsivilsk and Cheboksary. Kozmodemyansk has been strong resistance and was severely punished for this: 60 people were executed, were chopped off by hundreds of hands or fingers, 400 people were punished by the whip. By January 1671, Mr.. Eastern Ukraine subsided. There was no leader who would become the head of the discontented, riots, therefore, although broke, but soon petered out. After the defeat at Simbirsk, Stenka confused and rushed down the Volga. His name has lost its charm. In Samara and Saratov, he was not allowed into the city. In Tsaritsyn he spent some time lechas from wounds near Simbirsk, and only in winter, with a handful of loyal to Don and tsaritsyntsev, Kagalinsky arrived in town and began to communicate with Astrakhan and Cherkassky, hoping to further improve business. In Cherkassk prevailed Ataman Roots Yakovlev, always remained faithful to Moscow. Stenka thought to take Cherkassk force in February 1671, Mr.. approached the city, but to take him, he failed and he returned to his village Kagalinsky. Angered failures, Stenka particularly badly behaved with his enemies, and he burned them in the oven, as firewood. At this time in Moscow patriarch Joseph betrayed Razin anathema, particularly during festive atmosphere. Cossacks now decided to act against Stenka. April 14, they rushed to the town Kagalinskomu. Stenka and his brother Frolka with accomplices were captured (details of this event are unknown). Accomplices Stenka were hanged on the spot, with the same Stenka Frolkov were sent to Moscow. Here, after torture, during which Stenka did not utter a single word, he was publicly executed on June 6, 1671. His brother Frolka afraid of death and said for a "sovereign's word. His execution was delayed, he was again subjected to torture, continued his fate unknown. Foreigners say that he was condemned to perpetual imprisonment. After the death of Razin rebellion remained neusmirennym alone in Astrakhan. Going to Simbirsk, Razin left here chieftain Basil Usa. August 3, 1670, Mr.. in Astrakhan rioted, during which the clerk had been killed and some of the adherents of the Moscow party. When later it was rumored that Stenka poorly and in November came to Astrakhan to the Tsar's Cossacks bring exhortation recanted, Metropolitan Joseph did to her list and tried to persuade the Cossacks to repent. This roused against insurgents and led to a variety of insults Metropolitan. When it came to Astrakhan Stenka news of the capture, the rebels did not despair, some of them, with one of the elders left Razin in Astrakhan - Theodore Sheludyakov - went to Simbirsk others, under the command of Vaska Usa, remained in the city. On the road Sheludyak came to the conclusion that you need to clear enemies from Astrakhan, he gathered a circle, on which it was decided to kill the governor of Metropolitan Joseph and Prince Lvov Seeds. To encourage Vaska Usa to the execution of this plan was sent to Astrakhan in the news, though, Metropolitan and voivod refer to the Don Cossacks, and on their instigation taken Stenka. May 11, 1671, Mr.. Metropolitan appealed to the circle, stripped him of the garments in which he came straight from church, tortured and thrown from the belfry. Was then tortured and killed by Prince Lvov. A few days later he died from a malignant disease Basil Vc: they say he was eaten alive by worms. The administration of the Astrakhan took Fyodor Sheludyak, who immediately after the death Usa returned from the Simbirsk in Astrakhan. During his heels came boyar Ivan Bogdanovic Miloslavskii and laid siege to Astrakhan. The siege lasted three months, has not yet Sheludyakov ruse to lure from the city and grab. Then, on Nov. 26, 1671, Astrakhan obedient. At first, in Astrakhan, nobody touched, even Sheludyak lived in freedom, but when everything calmed down in the summer of 1672 arrived in Astrakhan, Prince Jacob Odoyevski for trial and punishment. Sheludyak and other main instigators were hanged, others were sent to serve in the upland town. Personality Razin left a deep mark in people's memory. It is confined to a cycle of songs, a number of tracts on the Volga is called by his name, in some places and now still waiting for his arrival. Wed. NI. Kostomarov "Revolt Stenka Razin" ( "Monograph", t. II); SM. Soloviev "History of Russia" (t. XI). N. In.