Giuseppe Garibaldi (Garibaldi Giuseppe)( Italian revolutionary.)
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Biography Giuseppe Garibaldi (Garibaldi Giuseppe)
Born July 4, 1807 in Nice. In 1815 the city went to the Kingdom of Sardinia, formed from the Duchy of Savoy, the Italian region of Piedmont and Sardinia. Garibaldi served as a seaman on merchant ships sailed the Mediterranean and Black Seas. In his early youth was the captain of the ship. In 1833 in Marseille met Giuseppe Mazzini, the ideas that struck his fancy. Garibaldi joined Mazzini secret society 'Young Italy', which aimed to put an end to foreign domination in Italy, to unite all of its land and establish a republican government.
Participated in the rebellion in Piedmont, after its suppression was forced to flee abroad. He was sentenced to death. Many years spent in South America. Participated in the fight against the breakaway republic of Rio Grande do Sul for the separation of Brazil. In 1842 with his wife, Anita, Creole came to Montevideo in Uruguay, where he participated in another civil war, against Juan Manuel de Rosas, created the Italian legion, exercised defense Montevideo.
Returning to Italy in 1848, Garibaldi fought against Austria for just formed the Milan Republic. Organize the defense declared February 9, 1849 the Roman Republic. After being defeated, fled to the north, pursued by the Austrian, French, Spanish and Neapolitan troops. Garibaldi managed to reach San Marino, where he was arrested and expelled from the country. In 1850 he was in New York, where he worked at the candle factory and later sailed on a merchant ship to South America and China.
Only in 1854 the government of Piedmont allowed Garibaldi to return home. He settled on the island Kaprere, off the northern coast of Sardinia. During this period he began to dispute with Mazzini and supporters of the unification of Italy on the basis of the Republican. In 1856 and 1858 Garibaldi met secretly with Piedmont Prime Minister, Count Cavour. In 1859, with the participation of Italy, Garibaldi was returned to Lombardy. In the north of the peninsula in the hands of the Austrians had only Venice. When in 1859, Piedmont began the war against Austria, Garibaldi was invited to command a detachment of volunteers.
In September 1859 Garibaldi's troops came to Florence, with the intent to take Rome and overthrow the papal power. To avoid a rupture with France, who held until 1870 in Rome garrison to protect the Pope, King Victor Emmanuel II, Garibaldi pinned on decisive action. However, when in 1860 Cavour and Victor Emmanuel gave Nice, France, Garibaldi refused to obey the authorities. In May 1860 he led the detachment of volunteers, . called 'a thousand' (actually there were more), . went on two ships from Genoa to the shores of Sicily, . where at this time began an uprising against Francis II Bourbon - Sovereign states, . referred to as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (it included much of southern Italy and the whole island of Sicily),
. The rebels, joined the Islanders arrived from the continent 'Red Shirts' ( 'red shirts' uniforms were volunteers from the time of Garibaldi Italian Legion). After the successful joint military operations Garibaldi found on the island of its power.
In August 1860 Garibaldi's troops crossed the sea to the peninsula and captured Naples. However, in October, they were stopped by the Neapolitan army in r.Volturno. After that Garibaldi had, however reluctantly, to take care of Piedmont and Cavour under pressure to hand over power on the island of King Victor Emmanuel II. As a result of accession to the Piedmont of the conquered territories, a new Italian state.
In 1862 Garibaldi made an unsuccessful invasion of the Trentino, one of the areas in the north of Italy, which she contested in the Austrian Empire. Then he led his volunteers in Rome, occupied by the French. The Italian government did not want to aggravate relations with France and sent troops against him, in a battle that when Calabrian town Aspromonte commander was seriously wounded and taken prisoner. In 1866 Garibaldi played an important role in the victories over the Austrians, which led to the accession to the Venice area of Italy with its main city of Venice. The following year Garibaldi received instruction from the government to seize Rome, but was defeated by the French at Mentane. The latest military action Garibaldi was his voluntary participation in the war of France against Prussia in 1870. Some time Garibaldi remained a member of the Italian Parliament, but then withdrew from political activity. Died Garibaldi o.Kaprere June 2, 1882.