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Stone Lion B.

( Soviet statesman and party figure.)

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Biography Stone Lion B.
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Kamenev (cf.. Pham. Rosenfeld), Lev Borisovich (1883, Moscow - 1936, ibid) - cos. State. and desks. figure. Genus. family driver, who became an engineer. He studied in Vilna, then the Tiflis Gymnasium, in the last class to attend a swarm-Marxist circles and read illegal lit-pv, for which he received a poor grade for conduct, and was forced to file a petition to the Minister of Education the right to go to univ. In 1901, he enrolled in the Law Faculty of Moscow. Unt. For participation in student demonstrations in 1902 was arrested and expelled from the 1 st year without the right to recovery and sent to Tiflis, where he took part in the activities of the Social-Democratic groups. The autumn of 1902 went to Paris, met with VI. Lenin and his future wife, sister L.D. Trotsky, Olga. Returning to Russia in 1903, making railroad strike in Tbilisi, led the roar. work in Moscow. He was arrested and deported to Tbilisi under strict police surveillance. He worked in the Caucasian Committee RSDLP, where he met and. V. Stalin. Delegate III Party Congress, Kamenev advocated an armed uprising. After the arrival of Lenin in Russia in 1905, Kamenev was his closest assistant, working in legal and illegal publications, promoting the Bolshevik point of view. At the V Congress of the RSDLP Kamenev joined the Central Committee and the Bolshevik Center. In 1908, Kamenev was arrested but soon released and at the end of the year went to Geneva. They joined the editorial board gas. Proletarian, the central organ of the Bolsheviks, along with G.E. Zinoviev and VI. Lenin, which was reflected in a joke: "Our party leader Grigory I. Stone. Kamenev was the representative of the Party congresses at the II International. In 1911 Kamenev lectured at the party school Longjumeau near Paris, and wrote the book. Two parties, in a swarm-opposed the Menshevik liquidators. In 1914 Kamenev arrived in St. Petersburg to direct gas. Pravda and the Bolshevik faction of the State IV. Duma. In Ozerki members of the Duma and Kamenev were arrested on charges of state. treason. At trial, Kamenev expressed his opposition to the Leninist slogan of the defeat of his government in the war and already in exile in Vost. Siberia, was subjected to accusations YA.M. Sverdlov of cowardice, but found support from I.V. Stalin, Kamenev explain the behavior as a military stratagem. Upon his return to Petrograd Kamenev after the February roar. Central Committee forbade him to put his signature to the articles in "Pravda". Kamenev did not agree with the "April Theses Lenin, tk. not considered a bourgeois-democratic revolutionary. completed. After the July demonstration and non-CEC to take power, Lenin, going into hiding, Kamenev left a note asking if his death to take the publication of his book:. "The State and Revolution". As an advocate to appear in court for the removal of the Bolshevik accusations of treason, Kamenev, surrendered to authorities, he was soon released for lack of grounds for the charges and became the representative of the Executive Committee of the Bolsheviks in Petrograd Soviet. Kamenev believed adventurous Lenin's demand to overthrow the Provisional Government and accept the need to limit only the control over it. At the meeting RSDLP (b) Oct. 10. and at an expanded meeting on October 16. 1917, Zinoviev and Kamenev opposed the armed uprising, . explaining its position weak technical training, . lack of support of the majority of the population: "We are not strong enough, . that with the certainty of victory going to the uprising, . but we are strong enough, . avoid extreme reactions,
. Here are fighting two tactics: tactics of conspiracy and tactics of faith in the Russian Revolution. Not convince the majority of the Central Committee, Zinoviev and Kamenev turn to the Party. Committees with a closed letter, the information on to-rum was held in the gas. "New Life". Reply to this publication Kamenev, Lenin regarded as a betrayal and. demanded the exclusion of Zinoviev and Kamenev out of the party, but it is not supported. Successful October revolution of reconciling. October 25. Kamenev said at a meeting of the Central Committee: "Well, if a folly and took power, it should be the ministry". October 27. Kamenev was elected Vseross II. Congress of Soviets of the CEC Chairman. October 29. Jean-union d. Vikzhel, leading Socialist. opposition to the Bolsheviks, . sent authorities an ultimatum demanding formation of a multiparty government without Lenin and Trotsky, . on-Roe agreed to stone by their actions Kamenev, had been strongly criticized by Lenin, . who found a compromise with other parties is inadmissible,
. In protest against the leadership of the Central Committee, Kamenev and 5 other people have resigned, but soon recognized their behavior wrong. CC removed the stone from the post of chairman of the Central Executive Committee, putting this place YA.M. Sverdlov. Kamenev joined the delegation sent to Brest to conclude a separate treaty with Germany. In 1918, Kamenev, Lenin was sent to England and France, to explain where the position of joint. Government. Kamenev was expelled by the British Government, and in Finland arrested, but was exchanged for prisoners of Finns. In Sept.. 1918, returned to Moscow, became a member of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee, and in October. was elected chairman of the Moscow City Council. During the civil war went to the front as an emergency commissioner of the Defense Council. To him, as chairman of the Moscow City Council, has repeatedly sought the assistance of scientists, writers, and he managed to secure the release of the historian AA. Kiesewetter, writer IA. Novikov etc.. In his house in Koktebel Kamenev invited poet MA. Voloshin. This did not prevent Kamenev, together with the IS. Unshlikht and DI. Kursk prepare for GPU lists "of hostile groups of intellectuals," for to-Eye exiled abroad or sent to prison. Since 1922, Kamenev became deputy chairman of the SNK and STO. VI. Lenin in 1922 gave him his archive, on the basis of-cerned appeared Institute of Lenin, the Director-cerned to Kamenev was in 1923 - 1926. Opposed Trotsky, Kamenev, Stalin proposed the appointment of the Secretary General of the Central Committee of the RCP (b). From 1922 to 1925, Zinoviev, Kamenev and Stalin considered the main leaders of the Party. At the XIV Congress of the CPSU (b) Kamenev first said: "I came to believe that Comrade. Stalin can not perform the role of unifier of the Bolshevik headquarters, but the attempt to overthrow Stalin failed. Soon Kamenev was removed from the Politburo and was appointed Ambassador to Italy. In 1927 he was expelled from the party in 1928 restored. In 1932, again expelled and sent into exile in Minusinsk, and the following year, after another of repentance, has been restored. Realizing their doom as a politician, Kamenev tried to go into science: he was director of the Pushkin House, Inst of world literature and the publishing house "Academia". At the XVII Party Congress, repent of their mistakes and praised Stalin. In December. 1934 Kamenev was arrested in the case of the mythical "Moscow Center" and the efforts of writer-investigator A. Sheinin and procurator AY. Wyszynski sentenced to 5 years in prison, . next year Kamenev gave another 10 years in the case of the Kremlin library and the commandant of the Kremlin "; in 1936 on the process of" Trotsky-Zinoviev Joint Center Kamenev confessed terrorist, . wrecking, . espionage pr,
. was shot. All the relatives Kamenev were repressed. Rehabilitated in 1988.

Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.

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Under Stalin
KAMEN (real name - Rosenfeld), Lev Borisovich (6.7.1883, Moscow -25.8.1936, Moscow), party and state leaders. The son of an engineer, a hereditary honorary citizen, son L.D. Trotsky. Educated in Tiflis Gymnasium (1901), studied law at Moscow University (not finished). In 1901, he joined the RSDLP, Bolshevik. During his studies he joined the Social Democrats, in April. 1902 expelled from the university for participating in student unrest and sent to Tiflis. The autumn of 1902 went to Paris where he met with VI. Lenin. Since Sept.. 1903 led the revolutionary work in Tiflis and Moscow. In July 1904 sent to Tiflis, which became part of the Caucasian Union Committee RSDLP. Since 1905 in St. Petersburg. In April. 1,908 arrested and after his release went to Geneva and a member of the editorial board of the newspaper "Proletarian". In 1913 he moved to Austria-Hungary (Cracow) to Lenin and G.E. Zinoviev. In early 1914 sent Lenin to Russia to lead the Bolshevik faction of the State Duma and the newspaper "Pravda". 4/11/1914 arrested and, although he was the main accused in the case of the Social Democratic faction of the State Duma, has agreed to condemn the anti-war propaganda of the Bolsheviks, escaped with reference to the Yenisei province. Released February Revolution and 12.3.1917 arrived, along with I.V. Stalin, in Petrograd,. Bureau of the Central Committee condemned his position on the process and decided not to charge him with positions of responsibility, but nonetheless, he remained on the editorial board of Pravda, although he was forced to publish their articles without a signature. In March 1917 members of the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet. Conducted active propaganda, becoming one of the leading Bolshevik orators and leaders of the Bolsheviks in Petrograd. In fact, despite the opposition of the Petrograd Bolsheviks, Kamenev is directed RSDLP (b) in Russia before the arrival from abroad of Lenin. And on his return was his main opponents for strategy. The majority supported Lenin, but in April. Kamenev, 1917, with the support of that Lenin was elected to the Party Central Committee. 9/7/1917, after ordering the arrest of the leaders of the Bolsheviks, voluntarily surrendered to the authorities, but on August 9. was released. An active supporter of "all-socialist government and the chief opponent of Lenin on the question of armed insurrection, and even resigned from the beginning of the uprising. By order of the Central Committee participated in the negotiations ARGET Revolutionaries. 25.10.1917 elected before. 2-Russia Congress of Soviets. On October 27. prev. VTsIK. Member of the Politburo. 4/11/1917, after Lenin refused to recognize the results of his talks with the Socialist Revolutionaries, resigned from the Central Committee, and on 8 Nov.. Central Committee decided to release him from his duties before the. Central Executive Committee and replaced it YA.M. Sverdlov. Member of Constituent Assembly. As part of the Soviet delegation participated in the negotiations in Brest-Litovsk. 29/11/1917 applied for a recovery in the CC. But he was denied. In January. 1918 headed the Soviet delegation left for the UK. From 1918, ambassador to France, but the French government did not recognize his authority, and a stone on the road in the RSFSR, was arrested in Finland. 3/8/1918 traded on the arrested Bolsheviks Finns. Since Sept.. 1918 Member of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee. Since October. 1918 Poma 1926 before. Moscow City Council - WTO time this post was much more important post of head of the Moscow party organization. Since March 1919 a member of the Politburo of the CPSU (b). In 1919-20 a member of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee. During the "debate on the trade unions" (1920-21) spoke in support of Lenin and Zinoviev. 3/4/1922 precisely Kamenev made a proposal to appoint and. Stalin General Secretary of the RCP (b). Since Sept.. 1922 to Feb.. 1924 Deputy. prev. SNK of the RSFSR and Sept.. 1922 to July 1923 - STO RSFSR. Since December. 1922 Member of the Presidium of the USSR Central. Since 1922 he was among the prominent Bolsheviks, who ruled the country instead of the patient Lenin, under Lenin, he is usually chaired the meetings of the Politburo. In 1923-26 director of the Lenin Institute. Since July 1923 Deputy. prev. SNK and STO USSR. After the death of fellow in the division became the top positions in Feb.. Before 1924. SRT. Supported Stalin and Zinoviev against Trotsky. In 1925-27 one of the leaders of the "new opposition". At the XIV Congress of the CPSU (B) in Dec. 1925, said: "The stadium could serve as a unifier of the Bolshevik headquarters. We are against the theory of unity of command, we are opposed to the creation of a Leader ". During the struggle with Stalin, Kamenev constantly "bolted" something to Trotsky, then from him than completely discredited in the eyes of party members (and played into the hands of Stalin). In December. 1925 transferred from the members as a candidate member of the Politburo of the Central Committee, and 26.1.1926 lost their positions in the ANC and the Soviet Union Station and was appointed Commissar for Foreign and Internal Trade of the USSR. 14/8/1926 appointed as ambassador in Italy. In 1926-27 was one of the leaders of the left opposition to Stalin to Trotsky. In October. 1926 removed from the Politburo in April. 1927 - Bureau of the CEC of the USSR, and in October. 1927 - from the Central Committee, as opposition. In December 1927 at the XV Congress of the CPSU (b) expelled from party. In June 1928, restored in 1928-29 beginning. Scientific and technical management of the USSR Supreme Economic Council. Since May 1929 before. Main Concessions Committee at SNK. In October. 1932 once again expelled from the party in the case of Marxist-Leninists "and sent into exile in Minusinsk. In December. 1933 for the third time restored CPSU (B) and was appointed director of the publishing house "Academia". At the XVII Congress of the CPSU (b) in his speech (read the speech of Comrade Kamenev at the XVII sezed of the CPSU (b)) said: "The new era will go down in history as the era of Stalin, . and each of us have an obligation to use all means, . utmost, . all his energy to counteract the slightest hesitation that authority ..,
. Long live our leader and commander, Comrade Stalin! "Since 1934, Director of the Institute of World Literature USSR behalf of M. Gorky. 16/12/1934 Arrested. 16.1.1935 in the case of the Moscow Center "sentenced to 5 years in prison. In July 1935, drawn into the affair, the Kremlin library and the commandant of the Kremlin ". 27/6/1935 sentenced to 10 years in prison. Stalin at personal reception Kamenev promised that if he. together with Zinoviev, recognizes all the charges against him, they keep life. Kamenev agreed. In August. 1936 divided "Trotsky-Zinoviev Joint Center" was sentenced to death. Shot. By "the Kremlin to" as to 10 years in prison were sentenced his brother Nicolai (1886-1937) with his wife, Nina Alexandrovna, senior librarian of the library of the Kremlin. In 1988, rehabilitated. After the death of Kamenev and killed his wife, 2 sons, my brother and his wife.

To use material from the book.: Zaleski KA. Stalin's empire. Biographical Encyclopedic Dictionary. Moscow, Veche, 2000

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In the 1917 revolution
KAMEN (present. Pham. Rosenfeld), Lev Borisovich (6 July 1883, Moscow, August 25. 1936, ibid). From the family Jean-d. engineer, who became an engineer. In 1901 he graduated from high school in Tiflis, he entered the Juridical. Dept., Moscow. Zap. Entry into studench. c-d. circle. For participation in studench. demonstrations 13 March 1902 was arrested in April. sent to Tiflis. Autumn he left for Paris, where he joined the Iskra, met with VI. Lenin. Since Sept.. 1903 Grand roar. work in Tbilisi, then in Moscow. In July 1904 sent to Tiflis, where introduced in Kavk. Allied to-t

RSDLP from to-cerned was delegated to the 3rd Party Congress (1905). Since the autumn of 1905 led the roar. work in St. Petersburg, has worked in the Bolshevik. publications. Affairs. 5-th Party Congress (1907) from Moscow. org-tion. In April. 1,908 arrested in St. Petersburg, after his release in July, went to Geneva, where he joined the editorial board gas. Proletarian. He was a delegate of Copenhagen (1910) and Basel (1912) Intern. Sots. Congresses. The summer of 1911 he lectured in Part. school Longjumeau (near Paris). Published in 1911 in Paris, book. "Two Party" with a foreword by Lenin (directed against the Menshevik liquidators). In 1913 came to Krakow to Lenin and G.E. Zinoviev, where. Directed at the beginning. 1914 in St. Petersburg for hands-va gas. "The Truth" and the activities of the Bolshevik. fraction 4 th State. Duma. Nov 4.

1,914 arrested at a meeting in Ozerki members of the Bolshevik. faction of the Duma and desks. workers. At trial. process in Feb.. 1915 Attorney presented as Chapter. the accused, unlike his comrades - members of the Bolshevik. faction expressed its disagreement with the Leninist slogan of the defeat of his OL-va in imperialistich. war. He was sentenced to exile in Vost. Siberia. After the February. Revolution of 1917, together with mK. Muranova and I.V. Stalin, on March 12 arrived in Petrograd. On the same day Eng. Bureau RSDLP Kamenev demanded explanations of his behavior at his trial in 1915 and has decided until his articles in Pravda printed without a signature; Kamenev replied that "in view of polit.-party. considerations, "he could not give an explanation" to continue negotiations with Lenin "[" Minutes and resolutions of the Bureau RSDLP (b) (March 1917), "Questions of Party History, 1962," 3,. 143, 146) March 13 Bureau of the Central Committee, taking into account existed abroad felt that Kamenev not be assigned Liability. positions, with what was agreed and Moscow. org-tion, confirmed its earlier decision and decided the question of Kamenev make the forthcoming desks. conference (ibid.,. 146). March 14, Pravda publ. Article Kamenev (unsigned) "Provisional. pr-in and roar. S.-Democracy ", in a swarm-an analysis of the situation in the country where" formal power passed into the hands of representatives of the roar. proletariat and the cross-va-tion committed revolutionary, but in the hands of people nominated by the liberal movement of the class of owners'. Expressing confidence that the "roar-tion will be developed and strengthened, that it will go to the dictatorship of the proletariat and the Cross Island", Kamenev at the same time pointed out that the time. pr-in "would be inclined to delay the development of the Revolution of". It is, "leaning against the will, forced by the roar. people "to go all forward. Therefore, the roar. Social-there "is no need to even talk about that, because the time. Prospect of really struggling with the remnants of the old regime, to the extent he is assured will decide Support roar. proletariat ". Music should be the same vigor "to criticize and expose every inconsistency" Prospect Island, controlling his actions. March 14 Muranov, has taken the total hands-on "Truth", introduced Kamenev in the number of its permanent staff, as reported in the newspaper on March 15, concurrently. with the published article Kamenev "No secret diplomacy". Stating that Term. army did not follow the example of Russian army and still obey his emperor, Kamenev drew the conclusion that in such circumstances rus. soldiers can not lay down their arms and go home ", so the requirement of" Down with War "is now meaningless and should be replaced with the slogan:" The pressure for a time. Prospect in order to force it open, ... immediately make an attempt to induce all the warring countries for the immediate opening of negotiations on how to end World War II ". Disagreeing with this conclusion, at a meeting of the Bureau of the Central Committee on March 16 A.G. Shlyapnikov invited to confirm the previous decision Kamenev, ie. bring it from the staff of Pravda, but again, it was decided to postpone the matter to the nearest partner. Conference. Articles Kamenev continued to be published in Pravda, but without his signature. March 22 Bureau of the Central Committee agreed with the view of the relation Kamenev to time. pr-woo, as well as on the war.

March 30 Kamenev (who became a member of the executive committee of the Petrograd. Council RSD) spoke at the All-Russia. meeting Soviets RNC (29 March - 3 April.) proposal to require from the time. Prospect Island will formulate a roar. Russia to the world: "You should say:" We do not just call all the oppressed to revolt against imperialistich. classes, but we on behalf of the Russian. roar. People say: not a single extra drop of blood for the interests of their own or someone else of the bourgeoisie "(" Pravda ", 1917, April 5.). But the proposed Kamenev on behalf of the Bolsheviks and supported by a group of the Internationalist Socialist-resolution collected only 57 votes against 325 votes for the resolution IG. Tsereteli on the continuation of war. April 2. on Vseros. meeting, Kamenev, speaking, instructed to maintain the Provisional. pr-in to be completely consistent, and to heed the recommendations GV. Plekhanov enter into the very pr-in, the roar. Democracy, if it wants to further develop the roar of documentation, must stand on a different position: "... an absolute distrust pr-woo, has withdrawn from the medium itself does not roar. democracy.

My point of view ... liberal-minded inhabitants tend to treat as calling for the overthrow of the Provisional. Prospect Island. But it is not. It is at this moment the call for the establishment of strict controls by the RNC over the legal counsel not easy. buttress the counter-tion - Time. pr-tion - in anticipation of the moment when the development of the Revolution of natural course of pit decomp. Russian classes. ob-va, and when it will be necessary to repel an attack Guchkovs "(" Roar-tion 1917, t. 1, P. 155).

April 3. returned to Petrograd, Lenin criticized predicated Chapter. arr. Line Bolsheviks Kamenev. Kamenev Art. "Our differences" (Pravda, 1917 April 8.: First, for his signature) called "unacceptable" pattern of Lenin, "because it comes from the recognition of the Burj's Democratic. Revolution of finished and is designed for immediate transformation of the Revolution of a revolutionary socialist-tion "; Kamenev expressed hope in the general discussion" to defend their point of view, as the only possible for the roar. with the Social-Democratic Party, because she wants to and must stay until the end of the party roar. masses of the proletariat, and not turn into a group of advocates communists ". In Article. "On the theses of Lenin" ( "Pravda", 1917, April 12.) Kamenev wrote that in order to build a Marxist, politics, little of the truth that "there is no socialism without the salvation of mankind, requires further consideration of the historical. situation, one must weigh the ratio of class. forces at the moment, in this country. "This in no Lenin's theses, or in his articles," and therefore "there is no response to a question polit. life in Russia today ". April 14. spoke at the Petrograd. obschegor. Conf. Bolsheviks (14-22 May.) against Lenin's resolution on the current situation, tk. it does not see any praktich. Practical guidance for resolving. issues ", particularly for treatment of dual power:" between being. pr-tion and the Council of RD there is an agreement. If we suggest to break this contract, it must be said ... If you break the contract you recommend tomorrow, then we must say that we should do today ... Since you are not calling for the overthrow of the Provisional. Prospect va now summon ... to control them "[" The Seventh (April) bseros. Conf. RSDLP (b). Protocols ", M., 1958, with. 351 amendments Kamenev were rejected. April 24. Kamenev made a co-report on the current situation ( "war and a time. pr-in ") on 7-th All-Russia. Conf. RSDLP (b) (24-29 April).. Referring to the resolution adopted on the eve of the Central Committee, to-swarm of protesters demand immediate overthrow the Provisional. pr-in called the adventurous, to notice that these things "is a gross exaggeration" and occurred only because they had not taken note of his warning that the slogan could play a disruptive role. As a result, we were obliged to immediately jerk back, we missed the time to warn the masses ... and put themselves under fire from the petty bourgeoisie "(ibid.,. 79). Kamenev said: "I do not understand how you can all three of these important issues as the question-uring. pr-ve, the war, the Intern. conditions of the labor movement, to include in a report [to-ing made Lenin-Editor), crumpled up, knock one ball, putting the Tourist Office. everyone in a difficult situation and making it impossible to answer all these questions ... "(ibid.,. 79-80). Kamenev, Lenin considered it wrong to conclude that the Burj Dem. roar-tion in Russia is over, that the Burj. democracy has exhausted all its possibilities. Eng. roar-tion, said Kamenev, differs from the classical, Bourges. Revolution of - it takes place during the war and hegemony, it was the proletariat. "But it would be the greatest mistake conclusions from this premature. Finally, this roar-tion not burzh.-democratic, that it is close to the socialist. We are talking about the Soviets as RNC organizing centers of our forces and centers of power ...", but another name for them shows that they represent a block of small-Bourges. and flight, strength, before to-eq are still unfinished. Burj Dem. problem "(ibid.,. 80). Responding to Lenin, opposed the proposed Kamenev and neck-eq other Muscovites control pr-tion, Kamenev, said: "Of course, control without power is empty toy. But does the Council RDA anarchy? Perhaps Comrade Lenin recognized that the Council has the power and control that it has control of power "(ibid.. with. 83). And if so, then such control over a mock-Eye Comrade. Lenin, in any case, take determined. watered, meaning ... If we understand the control as the stage for the transition of power ... it ... indeed lead us forward "(ibid.. with. 84). His conclude. Kamenev speech ended with the words: "The way flight, Revolution of one, but if I offer to do this way ... an airplane, then I refuse, because in that case I'll come alone, but I want to come to it with the masses ... "(ibid.,. 110). In the election of the Party Central Committee neck-rye delegates were incensed at the obstinacy to assert their views, asked to withdraw his candidacy: that prevented Lenin: "The presence of Comrade. Kamenev is very important, tk. discussion and rye-am with him, very valuable. Convinced him -. thereby overcoming the difficulties to arise in the rye-masses "(ibid.,. 322). Kamenev was elected a member of. RSDLP (b).

At the 1 st All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RNC (3-24 June) was a member of the Presidium of the Congress. Speaking on June 6 and responding to accusations that the Bolsheviks favored a separate peace and breaking treaties with allies, said: "For us, as for class. party, there is something beyond all. contracts is the interests of the world flight, Revolution of, and if those interests require us to break contracts, we ... for example: contracts should be broken ..."; "We did not have before us no prospect of an amicable agreement with Zap.-Europe. imperialism nor an amicable agreement with the germ. gene. headquarters ". In the field of view of the Bolsheviks, Kamenev said, only one world flight, the roar-tion, because the Russian. roar-tion will be lost without her support. That is why "we all look forward to their actions only in terms of how this or that movement in Russia is able to awaken this slumbering force of flight, the roar-tion in West. Europe "(" 1 st Congress of the Soviets ", t. 1,. 165). He was elected a member of. Central Executive Committee and its Bureau.

July 3, Kamenev and Zinoviev, learning to obeninennom easedanii Bureau Central Executive Committee and the RNC Office of the Board Vseros. Of the CD to begin performances Putilovites soldiers and the 1 st Machine Gun Regiment, demanding "All Power to the Soviets assured the meeting that the Bolsheviks against this statement, and Kamenev, had promised to take steps to prevent it. K Zinoviev and LD. Trotsky phoning org-tion of the Bolsheviks and Interdistrictite, urging not to speak. But the movement failed to stop. In the evening on July 3 meeting of the Working section of Petrograd, of the RNC Kamenev said: "Once the weight came on the street, we can only give this statement the peaceful nature" ( "Roar-tion 1917, t. 3,. 136). Night at a meeting of Bolsheviks and Interdistrictite "Kamenev reaffirmed this position. Kamenev wrote a directive to partners. speakers each inbound call to the Tauride Palace convoy of protesters to send their delegates to the requirements of the capture of power by the Soviets at the meeting of the Central Executive Committee, then return to the barracks and the pr-ment. On the morning of July 4 this directive reiterated the Commission's Working section of the Petrograd. All day on July 4 Kamenev held in the Tauride Palace at a meeting of the Central Executive Committee. Following the decision to disarm and return them to the sailors at Kronstadt Kamenev Joint. with Zinoviev and Trotsky tried to convince the leaders of seafarers to implement this decision. 5 and 6 July, Kamenev and Zinoviev were negotiating with a member of the Presidium of the All Menshevik MI. Liberia on the renewal of the cadets out of the defeated "Pravda" and railing against the attacks of the Bolsheviks, continued to urge soldiers and sailors return to their barracks, leaving Peter and Paul. Fortress. July 7 publ. Provisional Order. Prospect Island on the arrest and trial of Lenin, Zinoviev and Kamenev. In a letter to the chairman of the All NS. Chkheidze Kamenev dismissed the charges imposed on the Bolsheviks in the org-tion armament. speech, s relationship with the agents of germ. Prospect Island, pointed out that "these two charges, skillfully combinable in an intricate tangle of all the media creates for our party the tragic. inability to work ", he himself personally," is always ready to stand trial, competent to give an explanation of any consequence. Commission or be arrested "(" Questions of Party History, 1990, No. 5, with. 46). July 9 Kamenev voluntarily gave himself over to the authorities and was installed in the prison "Crosses". At the 6 th Congress RSDLP (b) (July 26 - August 3). Absentia was elected a member of the CC. Nominated Candidate. to members to establish. Coll. August 4. released - for lack of grounds for prosecution. That evening, speaking at a meeting of Central Executive Committee, chided its members - the Mensheviks and SRs, that they "wash their hands shall be removed when the organized workers and soldiers sincerely offer them to take power into their own hands" (Rev-tion 1917, T. 4, P. 14).

August 10. Several newspapers publ. reports that the former. Gendarme Regiment. Balabin confessed under interrogation about the involvement of Kamenev to cooperate with secret police. At the insistence of the All Kamenev Bureau has established a commission to investigate, and he wrote a statement: "Any message about my attitude towards his political police ...- lies and slander". But, "to ensure the commission's work and to protect his political institutions, to-ryh I work from klevetnich. attacks, I eliminate from all societies, the activities of the commission until the end "(ibid.,. 309-10). August 30. Commission rehabilitated Kamenev.

August 31. Kamenev spoke at the Joint. meeting of the Central Executive Committee, Board Vseros. Council KR and Petrograd. Council RNC: "We can not be assured until the power is in the hands of those people, his political blindness to-ryh not allow them to see the counter. Cadets, and while it remains possible Kornilovism. But the CEC is responsible for the conspiracy because he was unable to send a full force of government against the counter-tion "(" Work ", 1917, Sept. 1.):" In rejecting a coalition with the Cadets, you want to throw us in more dangerous course of a coalition with irresponsible. groups, but you forgot about the coalition, gathered and strengthened the terrible events of the past - of the coalition with the roar of the. proletariat, the cross-shaft and the roar. Army "(" Roar-tion 1917, t. 4,. 140). If we want to save Russia, warned at a meeting of the Petrograd Soviet, Kamenev, Sep 11., - We must say that the government should be in our priv. hands - the Soviets C, P. and Cross. Deputies ... If you do not understand, if you leave at least one loophole to the bourgeoisie and give it to touch the power - will once again be a crisis of power "(ibid.,. 199). At the opening Dem. meeting

Sep 14. said: "The meeting should decide which of the need to introduce reforms in Russia: the reform of whether the transmitting power in the hands of workers, or those reforms to revive the rye-omnipotence of the bourgeoisie" (ibid.,. 212). Since early. Sept.. with Zinoviev actually led the majority in the CC RSDRGKb), iterated Lenin's insistence on the transition to the immediate, the preparation of armament. Uprising. At the meeting RSDLP (b)

Sep 15. were read a letter from Lenin's Bolsheviks to take power "and" Marxism and Insurrection ". Kamenev proposed to reject the prisoners in their proposals for the preparation and conduct of armament. revolt and declare "absolutely inadmissible any statement on the street". After discussion, decided to instruct the Central Committee members, working in the Military. org-tion and RSDLP (b) take measures to not raise any statements in the barracks and factories (see: "The Protocols of RSDLP (b), with. 551 21 Sept.. Party Central Committee rejected the proposal Kamenev participate in the Pre-Parliament, but the Bolshevik. fraction Dem. meeting of its approved. 22 Sept. Kamenev and Trotsky were elected to the Presidium of the Pre-Parliament. At the meeting of the Petrograd. Council RDA Sep 25. Kamenev said: "Close to you ... a body to-ing will try to belittle your influence. Until recently, ministers were to come here, and now they have created for themselves away from the parliament. Us. In this body ... Ministers will be met with loud applause more than us ". I called: "Build the same

The Congress of Soviets, and they create a power-to swarm, and the workers and soldiers, and peasants will believe "(" Roar-tion 1917 ". t. 4,. 272). October 5. RSDLP (b) decided to leave the Bolsheviks from the Pre-Parliament, Kamenev voted against.

At the meeting RSDLP (b) Oct. 10. Kamenev and Zinoviev voted against the decision of armament. uprising. His position stated in the letter "To the present moment" to bring their PC, MK, sinks, reg., Finley. Region. to-there party, the Bolshevik. faction of the All-Petrograd. RNC executive committee of the Soviets, the Bolshevik. faction of the Congress of Soviets North. area. Recognizing that the Party leads the "majority of the workers and therefore some of the soldiers" (but not the majority of DOS. mass of the population), they expressed hope that "with the right tactics we can get a third and even more places in the inaugural. Coll. ". Sharpening needs, hunger, the cross. movement will be more pressure on melkoburzh. party and force them to seek an alliance with the flight, the party against the landlords and capitalists, represented by the Cadets'. As a result, our enemies will be forced to oppose us at every step, we will prepare a litho with the Left SRs, bespart. peasants and pr. ruling bloc, to-ing in the DOS. will have to conduct our program ". But the Bolsheviks could undermine its success if now take the lead performances and the proletariat will put in jeopardy rallied the counter-tion, supported melkoburzh. democracy. "Against this destroys policy, we lifted the voice of caution" [ "The Protocols RSDLP (b)" with. 87-92]. October 15. letter was read out at the PC meeting, Oct. 16, at an enlarged meeting RSDLP (b). Kamenev and Zinoviev again opposed the uprising. "The weekly results speak for the fact that data for the uprising now there ...- K-argued entire mass, to-heaven no longer with us, is on their side. We are their efforts at our expense ". Not established and Voen.-techn. apparatus. "We are not strong enough to with the certainty of victory going to the uprising, but we

strong enough to prevent extreme reactions. Here are fighting two tactics: tactics of conspiracy and tactics of faith in the Russian. lion-tion "(ibid.,. 99-100). October 18. the gas. New Life "publ. Article. "S. Kamenev on the "speech" ". On the one hand, to announced that he was "not aware of any decision of our party, which contain the appointment of one or the other term of any speeches," and that "such decisions of the Party does not exist". With others. hand. he made it clear that within the Bolshevik. Hand-va no unity on this issue: "Not only I and t. Zinoviev, but several fellow practitioners are finding that to take the initiative armament. uprising in the present. moment, when this ratio societies. forces, and regardless of the Multi base. days before the Congress of Soviets would be unacceptable, disastrous for the cause of Revolution of the proletariat and the step "(ibid.,. 115-16). Lenin regarded this statement as a disclosure in fact a secret decision of the Central Committee and demanded deletion Kamenev and Zinoviev from the Party. October 20. the meeting RSDLP (b) decided to limit acceptance of the resignation of Kamenev and Zinoviev, and impute to him the duty not to act with any statements against the intended line of the party.

. With the start of the uprising, on October 24., At a meeting of the Party Central Committee, Kamenev suggested, "to today without a special decision of the Central Committee, no member of the Central Committee could not get away from Smolny, then reported on the actions of the Petrograd
. WRC: on his initiative, he was asked to enter into negotiations with the Left SRs on the Joint. actions (see: Protocols RSDLP (b), with. 119-20) Oct. 25. 2 nd All-Russia. Congress of Soviets elected a member of the Presidium of the RNC, and before. Congress. October 27. elected before. VTsIK. October 29. in Lenin's absence at the meeting RSDLP (b) found it possible to broaden the base of the Soviet. Prospect Island and change its composition; to negotiate this with others. Sots. parties in Vikzhel delegated GL. Sokolnikov and Kamenev. In the negotiations on behalf of the Central Executive Committee, Kamenev, said: "The agreement is possible and necessary" under the following conditions: 1) platform is the 2 nd Congress of Soviets, 2) responsibility to the Central Executive Committee, 3) agreement within all the parties comprising the coalition of the Soviets, ie. People from the Bolsheviks to the Socialist inclusive "For the All in the first place is the program pr-va and his responsibility, not his personal composition (" Roar-tion 1917, m 6. 22). Kamenev did not insist on the candidature of Lenin, when the SR was nominated for the post of Prime Minister VM. Chernoff. In the matter of the authority, before to-Eye was supposed to be responsible in Prospect, he agreed to turn the All in a kind of "Provisional. Nar. Council "by populating it with not only representatives of the Board Vseros. Of the CD and from trade unions, but also from Petrograd. and Moscow. Gore. dum. For this has been criticized by Lenin on the Party Central Committee meeting, 1 Nov.. [See: "Minutes RSDLP (b), with. 126-271 Bolshevik. faction of the Central Executive Committee under the hands. Kamenev agreed to continue the talks, some have tightened their requirements: 1 / 2 portfolios - the Bolsheviks, Lenin and Trotsky - Required. Lenin viewed this as a violation of desks. discipline and he wrote the CC resolution on 2 Nov.. invited the opposition to step aside from Practical. work, "to-Rui they do not believe" (ibid.,. 131). 4 Nov.. Kamenev and other 5 members of the Central Committee filed a statement of withdrawal from the Central Committee in disagreement with the line of his hands-va to-Rui defined as a determination "to prevent the formation pr-va cos. parties and to defend a purely Bolshevik. pr-in to whatever has been and what would be the victims of the workers and soldiers at all costs "(ibid.,. 135). Lenin declared their act "desertion" and suggested strongly condemn it (PSS, m. 35,. 74). Nov 8. RSDLP (b) agreed to: remove from the post before Kamenev. Central Executive Committee.

Tsp. Inaugural. Coll. (from Vitebsk distr.). The delegation consists of the Central Executive Committee participated in talks with Germany. authorities in Brest-Litovsk. Nov 29. filed together with other statements to the contrary joining the Party Central Committee, what they were denied. In January. 1918 headed owls. delegation went abroad: in London, gave an interview for gas. "Manchester Guardian" as the new ambassador of Russia in France, but France. pr-in refused to accept his. On returning to the Owls. Russia was arrested March 24 on the Aland Islands Finley. authorities. Released on August 3. in exchange for the prisoners in Petrograd, the Finnish. Since Sept.. Member of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee. Since October. prev. Moscow City Council.

In the discussion on trade unions (con. 1920 - early. 1921) defended the platform Lenin - Zinoviev. In April. 1922 proposed the appointment I.V. Stalin gene. secretary. RCP (b). Together with Stalin, Zinoviev and Trotsky fought. In 1925-27 participant TN. "new" ( "Leningrad") opposition. Since 1922 Deputy. prev. SNK and STO. in 1924-26 before. SRT. In 1923-26 the Director-ta Lenin. In 1926, expelled from the Politburo in 1927 removed from the CC, then expelled from the party. In 1928, restored in 1932 dropped again in 1933 restored. Since 1934, the Director-ta world lit-ry of. M. Gorky. In 1934, unjustifiably repressed. In

1935 in the case of Moscow. Center was sentenced to 5 years in prison in July 1935 in the case of the Kremlin B-ing, and the commandant of the Kremlin "was sentenced to 10 years in prison in 1936 in the case of the Trotsky-Zinoviev Joint Center" was sentenced to death. Rehabilitated in 1988.

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