PROUDHON Pierre Joseph (Proudhon)( French economist and philosopher.)
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Biography PROUDHON Pierre Joseph (Proudhon)
"Ownership - is theft."
. "Philosophy does not recognize any other happiness but yourself, happiness, in turn, does not recognize any philosophy other than themselves, so the philosopher and the happy and lucky finds himself a philosopher."
. 'Father of anarchism' is often called the great French philosopher Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865)
. The son of a peasant, a self-taught, who spent life in heavy physical labor and extreme poverty, Proudhon was one of the few leaders of the socialist movement in XIX century. That did not belong to the ruling classes. The name associated Identity anarchism of Proudhon, the development of his basic social ideas and their dissemination among the masses
. Scientist and publicist, . newspaper publisher and member of the National Assembly, . party to the 1848 Revolution, . spent his last years in exile, . Proudhon wrote numerous books and articles, . The most famous work 'What is Property? " (1840), . 'System of Economic Contradictions, . or Philosophy of Poverty '(1846), . 'Confessions of a revolutionary' (1849) and 'On the political power of the working classes' (1865),
. In the views of Proudhon, . as in his life, . were composed of many contradictory traits and, . seemingly, . incongruous qualities: personal modesty and susceptibility to messianism, . proclaimed the revolutionary goals and commitment to the reformist Drugs, . volnolyubie in public life and extreme patriarchal in family life,
. Defending individual liberty, Proudhon also wrote the work 'Pornokratiya, or Women now', speaking against the emancipation of women and justifying the thesis of the eternal inequality of the sexes. Best conservative, reformist revolutionary, optimistic pessimist - this appears the man, whom Herzen called 'the real head of the revolutionary principle in France' and 'one of the greatest thinkers of our century'.
Proudhon was an enemy of state violence in all its forms: whether the constitutional monarchy of Louis Philippe, the Bonapartist Empire, the Jacobin Republic, or the revolutionary dictatorship. Having analyzed the experience of the 1848 Revolution, . Proudhon concluded: revolution is incompatible with the State, . and attempts to realize utopian supporters of state socialism (Louis Blanc, . Auguste Blanqui, and others), . hoped to seize power and use it as a tool for change, . lead only to victory and the reaction to the defeat of the revolution,
. If Stirner and Godwin, . little known to the public, . anarchist ideal wear for the most abstract and philosophical nature, . and criticism of the state clearly prevailed over the constructive ideas, . then Proudhon developed and popularized by the libertarian philosophy, . largely setting the appearance of generation of the Paris Communards,
The task of socialism in the XIX century. Proudhon believed the achievement of real social equality and real freedom (ie. overcome the power of the state of man). Proudhon avoided abstract schemas are not engaged in project-mongering, and sought to examine and evaluate the already existing trend. He said: 'I do not propose any system, I demand the destruction of privilege and slavery, I want equal rights ... I give the other discipline the world '.
State power, hierarchy, centralization, bureaucracy and law Proudhon opposed the principles of federalism, decentralization, reciprocity (mutualism), free contract and self -. Describing contemporary society, Proudhon wrote about mutual responsibility and power of the bourgeoisie, the combination of centralization and monopolization of unbridled competition, rife with 'spirit nesolidarnosti and greed'. In the name of freedom Proudhon attacked the state, in the name of equality - on property.
Proudhon argued that political freedom is impossible without economic security and without decentralization of management. 'That, . is called in the authorities' policy, . - He wrote, . - Similar and equivalent to, . in political economy called the property, these two ideas are equal and identical; attack one - means to attack another, and one incomprehensible without the other, and if you destroy one, . it must be destroyed and another - and back ',
Therefore Proudhon so formulate their own motto: 'So, just what the economic language we called reciprocity or mutual welfare, in the political sense is expressed by the word federation. These two words is determined by the whole reform of our politics and public economy '.
Proudhon stressed that only through extensive and complete freedom of the individual, only by understanding people's interests and their mutual agreement may be the real anarchy, real order and real unity.
As an opponent of the market economy and unrestricted competition, Proudhon did not seek to replace them with state-socialist barracks and total regulation. Speaking of the 'basic principle of general supremacy and subordination of personal element' in all the Socialist-statists (from Plato to Thomas More and Louis Blanc), . Proudhon explains: 'This system of Communist, . government, . diktatorialnaya, . authoritarian, . doktrinernaya, . it comes from the principle, . that personality is essentially subordinated to society, that societies depend only on the lives and rights of the individual, that the citizen belongs to the State, . as a child - the family, that he is completely in his power ..,
. and is obliged to obey him and obey all '.
Based on the principle of equilibrium, Proudhon, and defended the rights of society and individual rights, denying both selfish and despotic extremes. To avoid them, the French anarchist recommended to destroy the state power and social hierarchy, replacing them with the voluntary union of free individuals, communities and localities. 'Society dulzhno not be viewed as a hierarchy of posts and abilities, as well as a system of force-free equilibrium, where all are guaranteed equal rights, with the condition to bear the same responsibilities, equal benefits for equal service. Consequently, this system is essentially based on equality and freedom, it excludes the passion for wealth, rank and grade '.
Thanks Proudhon anarchism has spread across Europe, finding a number of prominent supporters (Carlo Pisakane in Italy, Pi-and-Margalit in Spain and others). Historian of anarchism, Max Nettlau of Proudhon wrote: 'Unfortunately, he died just at the time arose International. But at the same time, a huge figure of Bakunin had already appeared, and in any kind of anarchism of 10 years received a strong boost from this remarkable personality '.