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UNDERGROUND Velvet (Velvet Underground)

( American musical group)

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UNDERGROUND Velvet (Velvet Underground), an American musical group. Established in 1965. Classical composition: Lou Reed (Lou Reed) - vocals, guitar, John Cale (John Cale) - violin, bass guitar, keyboards, vocals, Sterling Morrison (Sterling Morrison) - vocals, guitar, Maureen Tucker (Maureen Tucker) - drums , Vocals.
The history of modern music would be incomplete without this group, without four of its classic albums. Music could be heard differently, but other styles do not be. Although a few years the band has not achieved significant commercial success. Rock historians argue that the debut album 'Velvet Underground', dispersed copies of copies in 5000, exerted an enormous influence, that almost everyone who bought the CD, created its own group.

History of 'Velvet Underground' is closely connected with the figure of the famous American artist Andy Warhol (Andy Warhol) and his studio 'Factory' (The Fabric). Andy Warhol, 'father of pop art', embodied the idea of interaction between different directions in the arts: painting, cinema, music, literature, photography. 'Velvet Underground' was originally part of the musical 'Factories', participated in performances and shows, arranged by Warhol and his colleagues. Atmosphere of freedom and purposeful search for new, prevailed on the 'Factory', contributed to the 'Velvet Underground' began to experiment and also to seek new forms of music.

Although all the musicians 'Velvet Underground' have been very impressive person, Lou Reed was the leader, 'face' of the collective. After working for some time a session guitarist in early 1965 Lou Reed with his colleague, Terry Phillips (Terry Phillips) began to organize their group. Almost all the musicians of that time came to rock and roll influenced by the Beatles'. For Lou Reed is an example of the Beatles was the starting point in the sense that he wanted to play different music, unlike anything that was producing at that time pop industry. By Reed and Phillips were joined by two musicians: Tony Conrad (Tony Conrad), and John Cale, big fans of avant-garde music. Fiddler Cale, a native of Wales (UK) had a classical music education and has already had experience working in experimental music. He collaborated with famous Lamont Young (LaMonte Young). Cale Lou Reed was fascinated by their musical preferences, and in turn imbued ridovskimi poetry and song experiments. Soon they were joined by guitarist Sterling Morrison (Morrison and Reid's views largely coincided) and percussionist Meklayz Angus (Angus Maclise). At the end of 1965 Meklayz left the band and was replaced invited Maureen Tucker,

The Group changed its name, but soon they stopped at the 'Velvet Underground' (Velvet Cave), borrowed it from a pornographic novel by Michael Leja.

The first concert took place on December 12, 1965 in the College Summit High School (New Jersey). Repertoire of 'Velvet Underground' at that time consisted of songs from Reed and rock 'n' roll of Chuck Berry. At one of the group holds regular performances at the cafe 'Bizarre' gone, Andy Warhol and immediately realized that this music to match the aesthetics of his 'Factory'. He invited them to cooperate, and the group joined the studio uorholovskoy.

Lou Reed was fascinated by the personality of Warhol and the atmosphere of the New York studio, where daily collected colorful famous people: artists, writers, actors, models, including transvestites. All they have many characters luridovskih songs. Visited the studio and actress Ingrid Superstar (Ingrid Superstar). It is on the 'Factory' was born the word 'superstar'. In Warhol's group met with Nico (Nico), the former model, actress and multi-educated Hispanic woman of Yugoslav origin, its history of seven languages. She became their vocalist.

As part of the project Warhol's 'Exploding Plastic Inevitable' (The Exploding Plastic Inevitable) 'Velvet Underground' toured the country with a demonstration of the latest achievements of the New York art. And in 1967 they released their first album, Velvet Underground and Nico (Velvet Underground and Nico). Its unofficial name - "banana album" because its cover depicted a banana. Album designed the Andy Warhol. The commercial failure of the disk due to a failed advertising campaign record labels 'verve', though the album contained a stunningly beautiful song, which could become 'hits'. Thin lyrical ballads performed by Nico lived side by side with rigid and 'dirty' rooms, . like waiting for my man (Waiting for my man), . tells about the process of acquiring drugs, . or heroin (Heroin), . devoted to the actual experience of narcotic, . not to mention the two truly avant-garde compositions, . The album: Black Angel's Death Song (Black Angel's Death Song) and a ten-European Son (European Son),
. Lou Reed has established himself as a singer of the dark side of life. He talked about what was not made to think in pop songs.

The musicians began to move away from 'Factory', preferring to develop an independent career. Nico left the band. However, the relationship with Warhol and Nico did not break off, Reed even wrote several songs for his first solo disc Nico Girls from Chelsea (Chelsea Girls, 1968).

In 1967, just two days, the band recorded one of the most uncompromising avant-garde album: White Light / White Heat (White Light / White Heat). Six songs, in fact quite melodic, appear on the disc in the frame of buzzing, grinding, overstraining themselves guitars and violins, deafening at times other tools. And the theme song of the rigid: drugs, electroshock therapy (which Lou Reed himself moved in 17 years), sex orgies. Lou Reed and Cale of potential 'hits' numbers (for example, the lyric I heard she called me by name - I Heard her the Call my Name) made a defiant non-commercial things. The album became the starting point of the later musical 'noise-rock' (noise rock).

After this album, Lou Reed has decided to focus on soft melodious compositions. Cale, who wanted to continue experimenting with avant-garde sound, left, and the place of bassist Doug Yule took (Doug Yule)

. The third album Velvet Underground (Velvet Underground, . 1969) Lou Reed appeared as a great melodist and by surprisingly tender and sad songs light blue eyes (Pale Blue Eyes), . Candy says (Candy Says), . Jesus (Jesus), . Evening hours (Afterhours),

Group had a strong reputation among intellectuals and independent rebellious youth, but the commercial success of the group have not been. They made a few new studio recordings, which were issued only after almost 20 years: VU (1985) and Another VU (Other VU, an approximate translation of Another Look, 1986).

In preparing the album Loaded (Loaded, 1970) the group almost broke. Lou Reed did not like the sound, which suggested Doug Yule and producers, but being under a strong narcotic effects, did not find the strength to influence events. Album surprised a lot of old fans, because his sound was really quite unlike the sound of previous records. The sound was slicked back and a mild. Instead of the original manner of percussion Tucker used the traditional drums. By all measures, has turned out quite successful pop album, but the mass audience ignored his. The album contained the legendary songs of Reed Sweet Jane (Sweet Jane) and Rock-n-roll, who played later Lou Reed and many other groups. Shortly after the album Lou Reed announced his retirement from the 'Velvet Underground'.

In fact, the band broke up, but Doug Yule in 1973 issued a very feeble album Compression (Squeeze) under the label group. With the release of this disc has finally become clear that the main creative and driving force was Lou Reed, who had already conducted a very successful solo activities. With solo albums were made by other members of the group: particularly successful experimental work were John Cale

. The mass acceptance of 'Velvet Underground' came only after their collapse in the 1970, . when unfolded wave of punk rock and then post-punk, . but especially in the 1980's and 1990's, . when scored by the phenomenon of independent (indie - 'indie') music, . grunge (grunge) and other 'alternative' directions,

In 1993, this is no exaggeration to the cult group gathered in a classical composition (Reed, Cale, Morrison, Tucker) and took the tour on the materials of which was a double live album, gigs in 1993 (Live MCMXCIII, 1993). However, it was a short-term reunification, not having led to a revival of.

September 30, 1995 died Sterling Morrison, and the story 'Velvet Underground' is over, although the influence of their music and musical ideas on his contemporaries unabated.

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