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Osorgin Mikhail

( Russian novelist, journalist)

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Biography Osorgin Mikhail
Osorgin, Mikhail Andreyevich (cf.. Ilin surname) (1878-1942), Russian novelist, journalist. Born 7 (19) October 1878 in Perm in the family of hereditary nobles pole, direct descendants of Rurik. Began to publish in my school years, from 1895 (in t.ch. story "Father", 1896). In 1897 he entered the law faculty of Moscow University, where in 1899 for participating in student unrest was exiled to Perm by secret police surveillance. In 1900, recovered in the university (he graduated from the course in 1902), conducted in the years of study category 'Moscow letter' ( 'Diary of Muscovite') in the newspaper "Perm Provincial Gazette '. Trust tone, soft and wise irony combined with a label marked with observation and follow-up stories Osorgin in the genre of 'physiological sketch "(" On an inclined plane. From a student's life, "1898;" prisoner wagon ", 1899), the romantic 'fantasy' (" Two moments. Christmas Fantasy ", 1898) and humorous sketches (" Letter from son to mother ", 1901). Engaged in the bar, together with K. Kowalski, A. Boutkevitch etc.. founded in Moscow publishing house "Life and truth ', producing popular literature. Here in 1904 came out brochures Osorgin "Japan", "Russian commanders in the Far East" (biography of EI Alekseeva, AN Kuropatkin, Makarov and others), "Workers Compensation for accidents. Act June 2, 1903 ".

In 1903 he married the daughter of a writer known the People AK Malikova (memoir essay Osorgin "Meetings. A. K. Malikov, VG Korolenko, 1933). In 1904 joined the Socialist Party (was close to its' left 'wing), the clandestine newspaper which in 1905 published an article "For what?" Justifying terrorism "fight for the good of the people'. In 1905, during the Moscow armed uprising was arrested, because of the coincidence of names with one of the leaders of combat brigades almost executed. Was sentenced to exile in May 1906 temporarily released on bail. Stay in prison Taganskaya reflected in the "Picture of prison life. From the diary in 1906, 1907, participation in Social Revolutionary movement - in essays, "Nikolai Ivanovich, 1923, where, in particular, was mentioned, and the participation of Lenin in the dispute at the apartment Osorgin;" small wreath of memory ", 1924 , "Nine hundred and fifth year. To the jubilee ", 1930, as well as in the story of" terrorist ", 1929, and has a documentary basis dilogii" Witness History ", 1932, and" The Book of the ends ", 1935.

Already in 1906 Osorgin wrote that 'it is difficult to distinguish revolutionary from the hooligan', and in 1907 illegally going to Italy, where sending in the Russian press correspondence (part came in the book. "Sketches of modern Italy", 1913), short stories, poetry and children's tales, some of which came in the book. Tales and neskazki "(1918). Since 1908 shall cooperate in the newspaper "Russian Gazette" and the magazine 'The Herald of Europe', which published the stories "Emigrant" (1910), "My Daughter" (1911), "Ghosts" (1913) and others. Around 1,914 joined the Masonic fraternity of the Grand Lodge of Italy. In those same years, . learn Italian, . closely followed the news of the Italian culture (articles about creativity G.D 'Annunzio, . A. Fogatstsaro, . Dzh.Paskali etc., . of 'destroyer of culture' - the Italian Futurists in the literature and painting), . become the largest specialist in Italy and one of the most prominent Russian journalists, . developed a specific genre belletrizovannogo essay, . the late 1910-ies are often permeated characteristic manner of the writer of lyrical irony,
. In July 1916 semi-legally returned to Russia. In August, a 'Russian Gazette "published the article. "The smoke of the fatherland", which caused anger 'patriots' such maxims:' ... very much want Russia to take the man's shoulders ... shaken, and added: 'A and much did you sleep, even under the gun! ". Continuing to operate a traveling correspondent, delivered a series of essays "On the Motherland" (1916) and on the Pacific Front "(1917).

February Revolution had at first enthusiastic, then - cautiously, in the spring of 1917 in art. "Old Proclamation" warned of the dangers of Bolshevism and 'new autocrat' - Vladimir, . belletrizovannyh published a series of essays on the 'man of the people' - 'Annushka', . issued a booklet "Freedom Fighters" (1917, . of the People), . "About the current war and the eternal world" (2 nd ed., . 1917), . which fought the war to a victorious end, . "Security department and its secrets" (1917),
. After the October Revolution was against the Bolsheviks in the opposition newspapers, called for a general political strike, in 1918 in Art. "Day of Sorrow" predicted the dispersal of the Constituent Assembly by the Bolsheviks. Strengthening of the Bolshevik government led Osorgin encourage intellectuals to do creative work, . he became one of the organizers and first president of the Union of Journalists, . Vice-Chairman of the Moscow Branch of the All-Russia Union of Writers (with Gershenzon prepared a charter of Union), . as well as the creator of the famous bookshop Writers, . became one of the important centers for writers and readers and unique avtograficheskim ( 'manuscript') Publishing,
. Took an active part in the Moscow circle 'Studio Italiana'.

In 1919 he was arrested, released at the request of the Union of Writers and JK Baltrushaitis. In 1921 he worked at the Commission for Famine Relief in Russia Central Executive Committee (Pomgol), was editor of its newsletter 'Help'; in August 1921 was arrested along with several members of the commission, from the death penalty saved by the intervention of Fridtjof Nansen. The winter of 1921-1922 held in Kazan, editing the 'Literary Gazette', returned to Moscow. He continued to publish the fairy tales for children and stories, translated (by request Vakhtangov) play Gozzi's Princess Turandot (ed. 1923), plays C. Goldoni. In 1918, made an outline of the great novel of the Revolution (published by the head of "Monkey Town"). Autumn of 1922 with a group of opposition-minded representatives of native intellectuals were expelled from the USSR (essay "As we went. Jubilee ", 1932). Grieving for their country, until 1937 maintained a Soviet passport. He lived in Berlin, lectured in Italy, since 1923 - in France, where, after his marriage to a distant relative of MA Bakunin joined in the most peaceful and productive period of his life.

World fame brought Osorgin started back in Russia the novel Sivtsev Vrazhek (Dep. ed. 1928), . where in freely assembled a number of chapters, stories are brought to calm, . measured and spiritually rich life in the old center of Moscow professor ornithologist and his granddaughter, . - Typical being idealistic Russian intellectuals, . which at first shocks the First World War, . and then breaks into a revolution,
. On what happened in Russia Osorgin tends to look in terms of 'abstract', timeless, and even non-social humanism, in close parallel of the human world with the animals. The observation of several student attraction to the tradition of Tolstoy, reproaches in 'wet', lack of organization of the narrative, not to mention his obvious bias, did not prevent the huge readership success "Sivceva Vrazhek". And clarity of writing, . tension lyrical and philosophical ideas, . Bright nostalgic tone, . dictated by the acute and enduring love for his fatherland, . vividness and accuracy of the chronicles, . reviving aroma of the past in Moscow, . the charm of the protagonists - media unconditional nravstvstvennyh values reported novel Osorgin charm and depth of highly literary evidence about one of the most difficult periods in the history of Russia,
. Artistic success of the writer were also "The Story of a sister" (Dep. ed. 1931; first publ. 1930 in the journal 'Modern notes', . Like many other works of emigre Osorgin), . inspired by the warm memories of the family of the writer and creates 'Chekhov' image of pure and intact heroine; dedicated to the memory of parents memoir "Things Man (1929), . Sat,
. "Miracle on the Lake" (1931). Wise simplicity, sincerity, unobtrusive humor peculiar manner Osorgin, evident in his 'old stories' (part came in on Sat. Story of a certain young lady ", 1838). With excellent literary taste, Osorgin successfully acted as a literary critic.

Remarkable series of novels on autobiographical material "Witness History" (1932), "The Book of the ends" (1935) and "Freemasons" (1937). In the first two given artistic interpretation of the revolutionary way of thinking and developments in Russia in the early century, . not devoid of features adventure-adventure story and leads to the idea of dead-end self-sacrificing idealist way Maximalists, . and the third - the life of Russian emigrants, . associated themselves with Masonry, . one of the activists who Osorgin was the beginning of the 1930,
. Critics point out the artistic innovation "Freemasons", . use of stylistic film (sort of akin to the poetics of European expressionism) and newspaper genres (informational blotches, . factual saturation, . sensationally-lozungovye 'cap', etc.),

. Clearly manifested in the novel "Sivtsev Vrazhek" pantheism Osorgin found expression in the cycle of lyrical essay "Incidents green world" (1938, originally published in the 'Latest News' signed 'Philistine'), . where careful attention to all living things on earth combined with a protest against the offensive technotronic civilization,
. In line with the same 'impeccable' perception is created and the cycle, . dedicated to the world of things, . - Collected by the writer's richest collections of Russian editions "Notes old knigoeda" (1928-1937), . where in the archaic-accurate, . correct and colorful author's speech put an unerring ear writer on the Russian word,

Shortly before the war Osorgin began work on his memoirs ( "Childhood" and "Youth", both 1938; "Seasons" - publ. 1955). In 1940 the writer moved from Paris to the south of France, in 1940 - 1942 published in the 'New Russian Word "(New York), correspondence," Letters from France ". Pessimism, the perception of the meaninglessness not only physical but also spiritual resistance to evil reflected in the books "In the quiet village of France" (published. in 1946) and "Letters of a minor" (ed. 1952).

Died in Osorgin Shabrov (France) 27 November 1942.

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