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Ryabushkin Andrey

( Artist)

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Biography Ryabushkin Andrey
Ryabushkin Andrey (1861 - 1904) entered the history of Russian art as a talented historical genre and thin bytopisatel contemporary peasant life. He was born Oct. 29, 1861 in the village of Sloboda Stanichnaya Tambov province. Father and elder brother were engaged in iconography, and the future artist helped them in their work. At fourteen years old boy was orphaned and left with his elder brother, had inherited his father's profession. The case helped Ryabushkin become an artist: his ability to notice a student stayed in the village of the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture A. X. Transfiguration. He took the boy in Moscow, defined it in college and took an active part in his fate.
. The first works Ryabushkin made in college - "pirate attacks", "carnival festivities" (1881, RM), "Summer Evening in the village" (1881, RM), etc.
. - Testify to the artist's interest in subjects related to the life of the Russian countryside. Most independent work of these years was the "Peasant Wedding in the Tambov province" (1880, TG). In this picture already felt personality traits

artist: subtle observation, restraint and softness in the transfer of feelings, good-natured, condescending irony.

Ryabushkin not graduated from the Moscow School. After the death of his teacher in. G. Perov, he went to St. Petersburg and in 1882 entered the Academy of Fine Arts. Important role in the serious training has played a teacher in-kind class P. P. Chistyakov. A picturesque sketch artist "The model" (1887, Scientific Research Museum of the Academy of Fine Arts) was as one of the best examples on the Academy of. In these years Ryabushkin lot working on the implementation of academic programs at the stories of biblical tales, ancient mythology and Roman history.

. Professors of the Academy celebrated the courage and innovation of the young artist's ability to seek the truth of life, the credibility of the composition, the naturalness of the image of people
. Simultaneously Ryabushkin enjoys creating illustrations for popular magazines at the time "World illustration" and "Field".

Thesis Ryabushkin devotes religious theme "Descent from the Cross" (1890, TG). Working on it, the artist had become indifferent to the original sketch, approved by the Council of the Academy, and without fear of consequences, one month before the deadline has written a new song. As a result of the violation of the rules of the contest he was deprived of the big gold medal.

In 1890, after graduating from the Academy of Arts, Ryabushkin carries his dream - a journey along the ancient cities of Russia. He was attracted by the monuments of ancient Russian architecture, painting. In museums, he studied the antiquities: textiles, household utensils, costumes, weapons. The artist was really keen on reading the historical literature, chronicles and folk tales. Soon Ryabushkin settled near St. Petersburg, not far from the station Luban, the estate of his friend and. F. Tyumenev, and in 1901 moved to the estate Didvino belonging to his close friend in. V. Belyaev. The project artist for it was built with a small studio apartment house. It is quiet and almost without a break, doing music and painting, the artist lived. The first advisers and friends, severe critics of his works were peasants, from whom he had always been to weddings, christenings and family celebrations. Village Ryabushkin obliged to create his best work: it nourished his art, gave an inexhaustible life material for creativity.

. In 1891, the first time at the exhibition Wanderers Ryabushkin exhibited painting "Waiting for the newlyweds from the wedding in the Novgorod Province" (1891, RM)
. According to his friends, the plot came from the artist's personal impressions, after he visited a peasant weddings. The painting referred to one of the solemn moments of waiting Suite, which froze in silence, sitting on benches guests, relatives, matchmakers, girlfriend ... With surprising ease and restraint shown Ryabushkin various shades of human emotions.

The artist admires his heroes, he was close to their moral integrity, high dignity. The immediacy of the image, the vitality of the characters are doing now a typical product of 90 years of the XIX century.

. Travel Ryabushkin their native country, a serious passion for Russian history, folk epics have caused concern to the historical genre
. In 1892 he wrote the painting "The Fun of Peter I in Kruzhalov (TG). The artist turned to an important event, Peter's time, a clash musketeers - representatives of the old army - and the new warriors of Peter I - amusing. But in the image Ryabushkin internal conflict has a peaceful, commonplace. Artist never attracted dramatic, full of stress situations. Originality, uniqueness of approach to the historical theme Ryabushkin true friends of the artist felt. I. E. Repin wrote that the painting "tolerate" the viewer in a distant era ... "So all of a sudden, not to seek and truthfully - a good thing!" In. V. Stasov noted that Ryabushkin "there is something quite peculiar, very original, a sort of a fresh, original look ..."

. In 1893 Ryabushkin created the painting "Sitting Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich to the sovereign's boyars in his room" (TG)
. The artist gave a thin prim importance of biting irony and boredom that prevails in these "seats". It seems that the seated mannequins dressed in knights, with indifferent, apathetic individuals to debate public affairs. In this painting, the artist first went to a different, quite peculiar color palette paintings. Previously, he first sought to make sure we follow nature, but now it puts one more, not less important task - through a common system of colorful fabric to reveal the "spirit of history."

. In the 90 years of the artist played a lot of custom work, drawings and watercolors for various publications and reviews, sketches of tracks for the intended painting of St. Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod
. Major historical picture of these years was the "XVII century Moscow Street" (1896, RM).

By taking an ordinary episode in the life of Moscow XVII century, the artist has managed to recreate the distant ancient times, as it opened a page of Russian history. Before the audience comes alive characteristic corner of the old Moscow with low wooden and stone buildings, muddy. On the street, picking up the high floors of clothes, people go. Young woman in a white dress, red dress walks carefully on a log-house dock, lord sits on a black horse, a beggar, sitting in front of an icon, to beg ... This artist does not often seen in many provincial cities of Russia, and therefore could with such vividness, naturalness present this scene on canvas.

Major role in the work assigned to the landscape. Cold autumn day, dark clouds, depleted foliage make a sad note to the general attitude. Clearly the artist to feel the attitude depicted - fine, good-natured and slightly sarcastic. Yet he admires the uniqueness, naive simplicity, elegance, and colors of this life. In addressing the decorative fabric Ryabushkin comes from the tradition of Russian icon painting and fresco paintings. He does not aspire to the illusory transfer of items. Painting it different density, local spots, decorative clarity. The found an artist painting system became his new creative discovery, the result of creative thinking about problems of historical and genre.

. Interest in the era of the XVII century put in Ryabushkin in the plan to create a series of historical paintings, portraits, which would have been sealed types, representing different sectors of society of the time
. The artist managed to write only "family of the merchant" (1897, RM). Portrait of the more static compositions, the still image shapes. The artist has shown them not to idealize or sharzhiruya.

. Not satisfied with the first option, striving for the unity of artistic interpretation of the whole work, Ryabushkin reworked and changed it, reinforcing the humanistic basis, making it more lively and handsome images of girls.

. In 1899 he graduated Ryabushkin one of the most beloved paintings "Russian Women of the XVII century in the Church" (TG)
. The artist has shown an extraordinary sense of decoration, the ability to create a coherent ensemble of color colorful clothes of women and bright interior murals. Smooth and melodious rhythm, the sonority of rare colors, bright picture of harmony is perceived like the old melodious song. Subtle, elegant painting recalls the ancient Yaroslavl frescoes and precious enamels, and the old thumbnail. Pictures Ryabushkin "Russian Women of the XVII century in the church" and "Family merchant" were awarded honorary diplomas at the International Exhibition in Paris.

In 1901, written by one of the finest paintings by the artist "wedding train in Moscow" (TG). On the canvas is revived far Moscow XVII century. Fast moving noisy colorful procession. In the foreground picture on the background of dark gray barn, stands a figure dressed young girl's sad that seeks to escape away from the lush and joyful celebration. The artist did not finish a lot, giving everyone the opportunity to perceive the picture in its own. With remarkable subtlety handed landscape - a quiet, pensive, pierced by the last rays of the setting sun of spring. Some places barely touched the canvas with a brush, some details remained in podmalevke, and the artist himself considered the work unfinished, but still the picture is seen whole, emotional, expressive.

. In the last years of life Ryabushkin enthusiastic illustrations for Russian bylinas, appeals to rural themes, pictures wrote: "Over the Water" (1898), "The Village" (1902, Private collection), wormed his way into a guy dance ... " (1902, TG), in the village
. By Mass "(1903, TG). Perspectives on the modern village, and his attitude towards it is reflected in one of the later works of the artist "Tea Party" (1903, private collection, Moscow). There are no former poetizatsii Russian village life. This work on the strength and severity of psychological characteristics may be placed only next to a painting. Korovin "In the world."

In recent years Ryabushkin seriously ill (tuberculosis of the lungs). Doctors advised to go to Switzerland, where he was in 1903 and went. But the trip was fruitless. Back home, in Didvino, artist, surrounded by friends, died in his. Workshop May 10, 1904. Russian art has lost a great, original, genuine national artist.

Biographies Portfolio
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    . P. Ryabushkin can be found in the section "Russian Art" on a private page, George Mitrevski (Auburn University, USA).

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