Joliot-Curie (Joliot-Curie), Irene( French physicist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1935)
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Biography Joliot-Curie (Joliot-Curie), Irene
September 12, 1897, Mr.. - March 17, 1956
French physicist Irene Joliot-Curie was born in Paris. She was the eldest of two daughters of Pierre Curie and Marie (Sklodowska) Curie. Marie Curie was the first time, radium, when Irene was one year. Around the same time, Irene's grandfather on the father, Eugene Curie, moved to live in their family. By profession Eugen Curie was a doctor. He voluntarily offered his services to the rebels in the revolution of 1848. and helped the Paris Commune in 1871. Now Eugц╗ne Curie was the company of his granddaughter, while her mother was busy in the lab. His liberal socialist convictions, as well as its inherent secularism, had a profound influence in shaping the political views of Irene.
At the age of 10 years, one year before his father's death, Irene K. began to engage in a cooperative school organized by his mother and several of her colleagues in t.ch. physicists Paul Langevin and Jean Perrin, who also taught at this school. Two years later she enrolled in college Sevigny, graduating before the First World War. Irene continued her education at the University of Paris (Sorbonne). However, she spent a few months, interrupted his studies, tk. worked as a nurse in a military hospital, helping a mother to do radiographs.
After the war Irene K. started working as an assistant researcher at the Institute of radium, which was headed by her mother, ac, 1921. began to conduct independent research. Her first experiences were associated with the study of radioactive polonium - the element that is open by her parents more than 20 years earlier. Since the phenomenon of radiation was associated with the splitting of the atom, its study gave hope to shed light on the structure of the atom. Irene K. We study fluctuations, observed in a number of alpha particles emitted, usually with an extremely high speed during the disintegration of atoms of polonium. At the alpha particles, which consist of 2 protons and 2 neutrons and, consequently, constitute the nucleus of helium, as the material for the study of atomic structure was first indicated by the English physicist Ernest Rutherford. In 1925, Mr.. for the study of these particles Irene K. was awarded a doctoral degree.
The most significant of it has conducted research began several years later, after a 1926. she married her colleague, assistant of the Institute of Radium Frederic Joliot. In 1930. German physicist Walther Bothe discovered that some light elements (among them beryllium, and boron) emit a powerful radiation when bombarded by alpha particles. Intrigued problems, . have arisen as a result of this discovery, . wife Joliot-Curie (as they called themselves) prepared especially strong source of polonium to produce alpha particles and used sensitive Joliot-designed condensing chamber, . order to capture the penetrating radiation, . which arose in this way.,
. They found that when between beryllium or boron, and a detector placed the plate of hydrogenous substances, the observed level of radiation is increased almost twice
. Spouses Joliot-Curie explain the origin of this effect so that the penetrating radiation knocks out individual atoms of hydrogen, giving them a tremendous speed. Despite the fact that neither Irene, nor Frederick, did not understand the essence of this process, they undertake a thorough measure paved the way for opening in 1932. James Chadwick neutron - an electrically neutral part of the majority of atomic nuclei.
Continuing research, spouses Joliot-Curie came to their most significant discovery. Was bombarded with alpha particles boron and aluminum, they studied the yield of positrons (positively charged particles which in all other respects resemble the negatively charged electrons), first opened in 1932. American physicist Carl D. Anderson. Closing the aperture of the detector with a thin layer of aluminum foil, they irradiated samples of aluminum and boron with alpha particles. To their surprise, the yield of positrons lasted for several minutes after it was removed a source of polonium alpha-particles. Later, Joliot-Curie came to believe that part of the aluminum and boron were subjected to analysis of samples has become a new chemical elements. Moreover, these new elements were radioactive: absorbing 2 proton and 2 neutrons, alpha particles, aluminum has become a radioactive phosphorus, and boron - a radioactive isotope of nitrogen. During Joliot-Curie received a lot of new radioactive elements
In 1935. Irene J.-K. and Frederic Joliot was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'made for the synthesis of new radioactive elements ". In his opening speech on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences KV. Palmayer recalled Jean-K. how 24 years ago she attended a similar ceremony, when the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, received her mother. 'In collaboration with your husband - said Palmayer - you are worthy of continuing this excellent tradition'.
A year after receiving the Nobel Prize Jean-K. became a full professor at the Sorbonne, where she lectured from 1932. It also retained its position at the Radium Institute and continued to engage in research of radioactivity. In the late 30-ies. J.-C., working with uranium, made several important discoveries, and came close to finding that, when bombarded with neutrons decay occurs (splitting) of uranium atoms. Repeating the same experiments, the German physicist Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann and colleagues Lise Meitner in 1938. have split the uranium atom.
Meanwhile, Jean-K. began to pay increasing attention to political activities in 1936. within four months was the Assistant Secretary of State for Scientific Research Affairs in the government of Leon Blum. In spite of Germany's occupation of France in 1940, Jean-K. and her husband remained in Paris, where Joliot participated in the resistance movement. In 1944, Mr.. the Gestapo began to suspect in relation to its activities, and when he was in the same year in hiding, J.-K. with two children fled to Switzerland, where they remained until the liberation of France.
In 1946, Mr.. J.-K. was appointed director of the Institute of Radium. In addition, from 1946 to 1950 g. She worked in the Atomic Energy Commission of France. Always deep concern regarding the social and intellectual progress of women, she was part of the National Committee of the Union of French women and worked at the World Peace Council. By the early 50-ies. her health began to deteriorate, probably as a result of her findings to the dose of radioactivity. J.-K. died in Paris on 17 March 1956. from acute leukemia.
High thin woman, famous for their patience and even temper, J.-K. very fond of swimming, skiing and walks in the mountains. In addition to the Nobel Prize, she was awarded honorary degrees from many universities and was in many scientific societies. In 1940. she was awarded a gold medal Barnard for outstanding scientific achievements, awarded by Columbia University. J.-K. a knight of the Legion of Honor of France.