Ross (Ross), Ronald( English physician and scientist, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1902)
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Biography Ross (Ross), Ronald
May 13, 1857, Mr.. - September 16, 1932
English physician and scientist, Ronald Ross was born in Almora (Nepal), the son of an officer of the British Army. Ronald was the eldest of ten children in the family. At the age of 8 he was sent to England for schooling. Although P. lifelong dream of being a writer, actor or musician (he published many of his poems, plays and novels), he in 1874,. the insistence of his father entered the Medical College Hospital St.. Bartholomew. 5 years later he graduated from college and from 1881. began working in a British physician organizations 'Medical Services in India'.
In the first years of its work in India, P. engaged not so much medicine as literary works and the study of mathematics. Subsequently, he wrote: 'I despise their medical duties. I was always busy, but the literary work, and did nothing to help people find the causes of those diseases, which are probably the main scourge of humanity '. In India, the most common such disease was malaria. R. decided to study the causes of malaria. To do this, during his first leave in England (in 1888) he received a degree in health and a course of bacteriology. In 1889, Mr.. He returned to India and began to study the blood of patients with malaria using a microscope.
In 1880, Mr.. Alphonse Laveran discovered that malaria is caused by single-celled parasite - Plasmodium. Today we know that the human Plasmodium parasites are introduced into red blood cells (erythrocytes), they undergo asexual reproduction, then break the red blood cells to form spores and begin a new cycle of asexual reproduction. Ultimately plasmodia turn into adult forms, having a form of crescent, and moving away from sick people to the stings of mosquitoes in. Because sexual reproduction of parasites occurs in the mosquito, a person is considered for these parasite intermediate host.
In 1880-ies. (largely through the work of Camillo Golgi) were studied under asexual reproduction parasites in humans, but has not been clarified way malaria. R. questioned the then prevailing theory that infection occurs through the air (especially in the swampy areas), and has written several articles in which he attempted to show that malaria is caused by the accumulation of toxins in the blood of intestinal. R. falciparum did not recognize the theory Laveran, since the first article, which he read in India, were written by researchers who have found these parasites.
During the second holiday in England (1894) R. met with Patrick Manson, who showed him Laveranom parasites detected in the blood of patients with malaria. Manson, was a doctor and Parasitology, proved that elephantiasis, or elephantiasis, is caused by parasitic worms, whose larvae are transmitted to humans through mosquito bites. Manson told R. their assumption that malaria can also be transmitted through mosquito bites, but he could not prove it. 'This assumption is at once very interesting to me - wrote P. later - and I immediately decided to thoroughly investigate it experimentally on return to India '. Manson has approved its intention to use its influence to persuade the government to send R. India in the coming year.
In Secunderabad P. histological study of mosquitoes began to find their parasites. However, his work hampered by the lack of assistance from the authorities, knowing R. Entomology and the fact that he stubbornly continued to write novels and poems. In addition, India has been very little scientific literature, and the P. there was no material on the scientific classification of mosquitoes, so he was forced to invent their own classification.
Within two years, P. studied normal mosquitoes, and finally in the stomach wall of the mosquito genus Anopheles found pigmented cysts, similar to the parasite, Laveranom found in the blood of malaria patients. The assumption that these cysts are a form of parasites was confirmed by careful experiments, P. He not only caught the mosquito, but also worked on their reproduction in order to be sure that the original agent had no. Then he gave them the blood of malaria patients at different stages of the disease and examined the stomach of mosquitoes. As he wrote later, his conclusion that the Plasmodium parasites mature in the mosquito certain kind of 'solved the problem of malaria. Further line of work has become quite clear, and it was evident that science and humanity won another victory. "
Shortly after the completion of experiments P. was transferred to the Rajputana. Because malaria in humans are not met, P. began studying malaria birds, similar, as is known, from a human. After 6 months Manson once again used his influence and made the translation R. in Calcutta, where human malaria was prevalent. Here P. unsuccessfully to find the causative agent of malaria in different mosquitoes, biting patients with the disease. Then he returned to his birds and Malaria in 1898. learned the life cycle of the pathogen, including the critical stage for infection occurring in the salivary glands of the mosquito.
In 1899. R. resigned from the 'Medical Service of India' and returned to England. His career in experimental medicine was over, but his work on malaria of birds were used in the study of human malaria group of Italian researchers, in particular Battista Grassi and Amico Bignami. Grassi with his team showed that the malaria parasite, as the birds and the person is carried by mosquitoes genus Anopheles. They described the life cycle of parasites in the human, . established human malaria, . not previously been subjected to the possibility of infection, . through the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes and proved, . that person, . living in the swampy areas, . be protected from malaria by using conventional mosquito nets,
. P., however, claimed that 'the work of Bignami and Grassi apparently hasty and uncertain', and called their discovery that the human malaria can be transmitted by mosquitoes, 'manifest error, future research that can confidently predict now. "
. Nevertheless, the work F
. Malaria birds was made clear before the study Grassi on human malaria, and P. in 1902. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his work on malaria, . in which he showed, . how the pathogen enters the body, . and thus laid the foundation for further successful studies in this area and to develop methods of combating malaria ',
. In his speech, a researcher at the Karolinska Institute to. Merner said 'the importance of work as the basis for the recent successful research in the field of malaria and its rich content in terms of medical practice and especially hygiene'.
The last 20 years of his professional career p. devoted to the epidemiology and prevention of malaria. Working in the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, the British War Office and London's Institute of Tropical Medicine, Russia, established in 1926, he pursued the idea that the main condition for the fight against malaria is a mosquito eradication. His methods have proven effective in combating the disease in Cuba and in other countries. Some decades later, when Paul Muller invented DDT, these methods have become more efficient.
In 1889, Mr.. R. married Rosa Bessie Bloksem. In the family they had two sons and two daughters. September 16, 1932, Mr.. after a long illness P. died in a London institute that bears his name.
P. was president of the Society of Tropical Medicine. In 1911, Mr.. he was granted a title of nobility. He was awarded an honorary medical degree the Karolinska Institute and was an honorary member of many European scientific societies. For his work as a consultant to the British Ministry of War during World War II he was in 1918. was awarded the Order of St.. Michael and St.. George.