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Koshelev, Alexander Ivanovich

( The well-known writer and public figure)

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Biography Koshelev, Alexander Ivanovich
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Born May 9, 1806, Mr.. His father, who studied at Oxford University, like Potemkin, who erected it in the Adjutant General. Catherine, noticing the mind and the beauty of the young Kosheleva once called him to her, this was enough to Potemkin seconded him in the internal provinces, where it is more in St. Petersburg did not return. Upon his retirement at Paul, he settled in Moscow, where he was known as "liberal, Lord" and enjoyed universal respect, and he was extremely interested in the sciences and especially loved the story. Mother Koshelev, daughter of a French immigrant, was an intelligent and educated woman. Parents Koshelev and received his early education. In Moscow, together with Kireevsky, Koshelev took lessons from Merzlyakova, while Schlozer-son was studying political science. In 1821, Mr.. Koshelev entered Moscow University, but soon left him, because of the requirements of the rector, that the students listened to the eight items. In 1822, Mr.. He enlisted in the Moscow archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Between friends Kosheleva were kn. VF. Odoevsky, Venevitinov, Shevyrev etc.; head of the archive was Malinowski, which made so-called "archival boys" to describe for years diplomatic relations with this or another state. Koshelev handled relations with Turkey. Prince Odoyevski Kosheleva introduced into the literary circle Raich. Soon, some members of the group, including Koshelev, with Odoyevsky headed, separated from the circle, were the Society of wisdom "and began to publish" Mnemosyne "- Russia's first magazine of philosophical direction. December events in 1825, Mr.. prompted the company to cease to exist. In 1827, Mr.. Koshelev at the bedside of a dying Venevitinov friends with Khomyakov, strongly influenced his outlook: Koshelev soon became Slavophile. In 1826, Mr.. Koshelev moved to St. Petersburg, where he served in the department of foreign faiths, and made (1827 - 1831) extracts from foreign newspapers for Nicholas. Koshelev lived in the house of his uncle, the famous mystic R.A. Koshelev, this period witnessed the scene of his unhappy love for the AO. Rossetti later Smirnova. In 1831, Mr.. Koshelev went abroad, became acquainted with Goethe, an economist with Rossi and other celebrities and planned to establish a not implemented, and somewhat vague on the society's counter Russian laziness. Returning to Moscow, . Koshelev long served as adviser to the provincial government, . then bought the estate in the county Sapozhkovskom Ryazan province and, . migrated, . Entered secular governance: the world chose the elder, . which together with the world was granted a court, . as well as the layout of taxes,
. The estate Koshelev started a few schools. While visiting the estate of a distillery Koshelev, involved in paying off the operation, which at that time were not considered indecent occupation. Relegated Koshelev held until 1848: Practice convinced him to inconvenience of this way of conducting business, and he presented a note to the Minister of Finance to replace the system of paying off the introduction of excise. Note this has not been given the status. How sapozhkovsky district marshal of the nobility, Koshelev tirelessly pursued abuses of serfdom, not retreating from the struggle with the most influential and wealthy landowners. Reading the holy Scriptures and the works of the church fathers Koshelev has suggested the idea of the need for the unconditional abolition of serfdom. Refuting Kireevskoe, which in its abstract mood remained a stranger to social issues, Koshelev said in his "Memoirs": "delving into the teachings of Christ, I became more and more convinced that the brotherhood is the foundation of all its regulations". In "the Agricultural Gazette, 1847, Mr.. an article Kosheleva: "Good will is stronger bondage, which offers free serfs, concluding with the conditions of a decree of 1842, Mr.. But Koshelev could not express its main idea - the release of the peasants with land, based on the fact that the landowners in Russia has never had ownership of the land, but only the right users, under government control. In 1847, Mr.. Koshelev appealed to the Ryazan nobility with a proposal to ask for permission to draw up committee on the welfare of the peasants, the same idea was born in Moscow in D.N. Sverbeeva, and between the two leaders a lively correspondence. Faced with the marshal of the province, Koshelev turned in 1850. Interior Minister Perovskoy, but his proposal was rejected. Like the first Slavophiles, Koshelev recognized only possible form of government in Russia, autocracy, but thought it necessary part of society, in the form of advisory. Koshelev spent the winter in Moscow, the summer - in the village. Classes economy bringing it closer to Lebedyanskij Society of Agriculture, in the works which he took a serious part, but soon became disillusioned: "We have no society, only individuals", he said. During the Crimean War Koshelev was a note on finances, which filed a new sovereign. He offered no recourse for the continuation of the war to new taxes and other domestic and foreign loans, . and ask for voluntary donations, . Why make an appeal to the patriotism of the country and to convene its representatives, . who decided to, . the extent possible donations from each class,
. In 1852, Mr.. out of the means Kosheleva first volume of the Compendium of Moscow ", the second volume was delayed censor. In 1856, Mr.. was allowed publication Slavophil "Russian Talks", a publisher and first editor of her was Koshelev. In 1858, Mr.. he founded a new publication: "Rural Improvement". However, he took an active part in the writings of the Ryazan Province Committee for the liberation of the peasants. "Rather, water, - he said - will go against his usual flow, than the Russian villager can be separated from the earth, then his well-fed". In 1859, Mr.. He was among those summoned to St. Petersburg deputies from the provincial committees and was one of those 18 deputies, . who asked the emperor to allow them to submit their comments on the final works of editorial committees before entering them in the Main Committee on Peasant Affairs,
. The signatories of the address have been subjected to the dictates of the administrative and light penalties, with the impact of some under special surveillance of the local authorities. Not escaped this fate and Koshelev. In 1859 - 1860 he. Koshelev was a member of the Commission for the device zemstvo banks, from 1861 to 1863. member of the founding committee in the Polish kingdom, where he was responsible financial management. He did not offend the national feelings of the Poles, to respect their national independence and insisted, with great difficulty, on the calling of the representatives of the Polish population to participate in the committee on the issue of taxes in the kingdom. Break it with his closest comrade, Prince Cherkassky, views on the Russian attitude toward the Poles and dissatisfied measures Finance Minister Reytern, Koshelev resigned from his title, leaving the Poles warmest memories. The results of his work can be judged by, . that the Russian government, . since 1815, . always had to pay extra attention to the known amount of balance in the budget of Poland, . and by managing Koshelev, . This surcharge has been exaggerated, . and the edge could be maintained on equity,
. Tireless work zemstvos in the province of Ryazan, Koshelev was president of the Imperial Society of Agriculture in Moscow, and energetic vowel Moscow City Duma. In 1871 - 1872 he. Koshelev published the magazine "Interview" in 1880 - 1882 he. - Newspaper Zemstvo ". Both of these publications, despite the difference in direction, dependent on editors (SA. St. George and V.YU. Skalon), campaigned for education and love for the people, praised the "power of the land and protect the community - that is, the basic views expressed Koshelev. Especially Koshelev vigorously acted as chairman of the county instituted sapozhkovskogo Board. He organized a statistical study in the province of Ryazan, and hotly defended in the "Voice" of Ryazan statisticians from building on their unjust criticism. Koshelev died Nov. 12, 1883, Mr.. From works Kosheleva left alone: "The Prince VF. Odoyevski (Moscow, 1869); "Our position" (BS, 1879), "On loan to landowners when purchasing their land" (Moscow, 1880), "On the classes and states of Russia (Moscow, 1881); "On measures to reduce drinking (Moscow, 1881);" Memoiren "(BA, 1883). - See. N. Kolyupanov "Biography of Alexander Ivanovich Koshelev (Moscow, 1889 - 1892; brought to 1856); SA. Yurev "AI. Koshelev "(" Russian Thought ", 1883, XII); NN. Semenov, "The Challenge and receive the first invitations to MPs on Peasant Affairs" ( "Russian Messenger", 1868, XI); article in. Stroyev in the Russian Biographical Dictionary.

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