GRANT Ulysses( President of the United States in 1869-77 gg.)
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Biography GRANT Ulysses
Ulysses Simpson Grant was born April 27, 1822 in Point Pleasant, Ohio, and was named Hiram Ulysses Grant. His father, owner of the leather factory and a merchant Jess P. Grant, attached great importance to the education of their children. At an early age Grant helped on the farm. He has developed a special love for horses, with which he, by virtue of his quiet nature, could well turn. After visiting many private schools, his father decided that his son should make a military career. Through the application of the Congress MP, Thomas L. Heymera, Grant was admitted to the elite school of U.S. Army Military Academy at West Point, New York. Grant obeyed the will of his father, without being enthusiastic about the military.
When recording a message on his mother's maiden name was entered as his middle name Simpson. Grant decided not to fix anything and left the name of Ulysses C. Grant. In 1843 he received a patent officer and began service in the 4 th Infantry Regiment of the United States. The war against Mexico (1846-48 gg.) Deemed unfair, but was forced to take part in it. At the end of the war was already a captain. By this time the comments are companions of the excessive use of alcohol.
In 1848 he married Julia Dent, of St. Louis, Missouri, daughter of fellow studying at the military academy. His regiment moved frequently, and in September 1853 he was transferred to California. At this time Grant had lived separately from his wife and born children by this time, because financial reasons did not allow him to carry for a family. No matter which it would be occupied, and without family support grant drowned boredom and frustration in alcohol. His predisposition to depression could also contribute to the habit of drinking. After numerous warnings Chiefs in the summer 1854, he resigned and returned to his family in St. Louis, where his wife had a small farm. Before the Civil War, tried unsuccessfully to engage in any business. In 1860 he moved with his family in Illinois and came to the father, who managed two of his brothers.
. Although his wife's family had slaves, he considered it his duty, when the war of secession, to fight on the side of Union troops in the country's unity and the abolition of slavery
. Colonel came in the 21 th regiment of volunteers from Illinois. From the outset, pointed out the difference between civil war and the war against an external enemy. In the civil war, each operation must be planned and carried out in terms of its possible implications for the subsequent reunification of the country and the people. Soon, he was appointed for his successes, General Brigade. After the Union troops under his command, drove the Confederates out of Kentucky, he praised as a hero, and Lincoln awarded him the rank of Major General. Found that he and farther continued to drink heavily, but whether he was an alcoholic, is controversial. In any case, despite the military successes, his boss demanded his dismissal because of alleged drunkenness. In addition, he smoked a lot of cigars that became his personal hallmark.
Given the stress of martial law, which housed the Union in 1862. Lincoln did not want and could not refuse such a successful officer, as Grant. Grant different logic, calculation and perseverance in carrying out military operations, and his troops displayed a high combat morale. In recognition of the military successes in February 1864, Congress awarded him the rank of lieutenant-general, and a month later, Lincoln appointed him chief of all armed forces of the Union. After the Civil War, Grant retained the supreme command of the United States Army. In 1866, Congress awarded him the rank of general.
War Grant said his place in life and has brought fame and recognition. Its popularity has attracted the attention of Republican politicians. The gap with the president of the Grant Johnson in early 1868, . which had been criticized in, . that one of its policies in favor of the southern states threatened the unity of the country and uses it for their personal political goals, . made it in the eyes of Republican presidential candidate, . which may count on success.,
. During the Republican convention in 1868, it seemed appropriate and in all respects a promising candidate for the presidency
. Although the political interest of the Grant and developed during the war, . And, as minister of war under Johnson, he has extensive experience, . critics accused him of lack of political competence, . necessary sensitivity for the highest office of the state.,
. Although Grant did not belong to the Republican Party, he received the nomination for president
. In the presidency saw the opportunity to maintain a military victory by restoring the political unity of the country and ensure that all United States citizens with equal civil rights.
. In his statement of consent to be a candidate Grant said: "If I am elected president of the United States, . then my only aspiration is to execute all the laws, . based on the best of intentions, . with wise thrift, . everywhere to keep the peace, . peace and security ..,
. Peace be to us! ".
. Program, . relies on the reconstruction of the South, . suffrage for freed slaves and the economic recovery of the southern states with targeted railway, . duties and financial policies, . Grant won the election in November 1868, . received 214 votes in the election board against 80 votes, . cast for a Democrat Horatio Seymour,
. Poor knowledge of the political scene, Grant when selecting his ministers and advisers had relied mainly on those who knew in their home country or from the time of service in the army. Of the 26 people who were Grant during his presidency, has appointed ministers, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Hamilton Fish was the most capable and besides providing the President the greatest impact.
. With the election of Grant and engage in government positions would benefit radical Republicans
. The President followed their views on the southern states, these views have been aimed at the establishment and enforcement of civil rights for black people. Continued reconstruction constitute its main domestic task. He approved the 15-th addition to the constitution, which is March 30, 1870 entered into force and guaranteed suffrage to the black male population.
In the South, conservative forces have increasingly prevailed. They fully. excluded blacks from political activity and limited new rights of former slaves. Even threatening severe punishment, the administration of the Grant was not able to counteract the increasingly manifesting itself organizing Ku Klux Klan. Grant all the more tolerant attitude toward the development of a conservative southern states, reconstruction seriously we forced. Also during his second term is not taken measures to resolve social and political problems between the races or to reconcile differences between the inhabitants of the northern and southern states. Grant is satisfied that seemed to come for some peace and order. Georgia, . last state, . previously belonged to a confederation, . was again taken into the union in July 1870, . and in 1872 the inhabitants of the southern states formally received back their civil rights as a result of the Amnesty Act, . which were not included, only 500 politicians.,
. Consequence of the civil war were the outstanding financial problems, in particular the preservation of paper money, or their cancellation and return of metallic money as the sole means of payment
. Grant, . had no practical economic, financial and political knowledge, . collided with the requirements of farmers to save paper money for the lighter of loans and the desire of industrialists east, . insist on the use of metallic money,
. He gave the order to the Supreme Court to allow paper money as legal tender. In 1875, Congress decided to restore the payment of coins in order to reduce public debt, so that existed as banknotes and coins, which was a compromise, but does not resolve your problem, because he was not set the exchange rate. Also on the fee issues Grant disappoint voters. Farmers of the West demanded lower taxes, a sharp rise during the Civil War. Before the election, promised desyatiprotsentnoe decline, but after the election forgotten about it.
Grant resisted the corrupt, and striving for his own benefit unit officials. At first, he still had the intention to reform it and replace the patronage of competence. However, the commission established to develop proposals for reform after four years of fruitless work has been dissolved, . and the appointment of the Minister of Foreign Affairs Zachary Chandler, . well-known advocate of protectionist, . during the second term in office was an insult to the reformers,
. In this matter, Grant refused to fight with Congress. Once the posts provided some friends and relatives, he gave the distribution of members of his cabinet and influential senators.
Since 1870 began to grow criticism of the president. The Republican Party increasingly at odds in the problems of reconstruction, reform of the bureaucracy, the question of fees. One opposition group, has teamed up with a party of liberal Republicans strongly influenced by the reformer Carl Schurz, a leader of the German revolution of 1848, which in the civil war had risen to the general. Along with Horatio grills in 1872, they put a presidential candidate, whose election campaign was supported by Democrats.
. Internal differences of opinion and unconvincing program of liberal Republicans favored the victory of Grant at the second elections
. This they were required constant scandals that accompanied the second presidency of the Grant. Although he was not involved in any scandal and was not personally accused of corruption, criticism in his address and addressed to his government was growing. Magnitude of reported cases of public corruption and bribery in the second half of Grant's presidency has exceeded all known before. Even Vice-President Henry Wilson was forced to defend in connection with the scandal in the construction of the Pacific railroad, where huge sums of public money ended up in private pockets. Particularly outspoken critic called the draft law on the pay raise in the spring of 1873, which would increase the annual salary of the president two times, t. e. to 50 000 dollars, and a significant increase in salaries of members of Congress and Supreme Court judges, including the last two years. A storm of protest forced the repeal bill, except for provisions relating to the President and the Chief Justice.
The most lasting impact on the situation in the United States had a "panic year of 1873". Six months after the start of the second term of the Grant crashed the stock market. Banks were forced to close, and the timid efforts of the Ministry of Finance to help remedy the situation buying shares could not prevent the economy sliding into crisis. Mismanagement, waste and major speculation accelerated the economic downturn. Some saw the beginning of the crisis in a strong emission of paper money by the Government to revive the circulation of money and thus consumption, thus stimulating the economy. Others felt that only a return to gold as the single currency basis to ensure stability and will contribute to a new upswing in the economy. Grant could not take any of these points of view, as well as split the party and factions. Out of fear of growing militancy of farmers and workers Congress decided in April 1874 to increase circulation of banknotes in $ 64 million. Grant vetoed: United States bogged down in an economic crisis, which lasted for the next five years.
The small success of the Grant administration was in foreign policy, although some activities have been very controversial. By the beginning of Grant's tenure as president between the United States and Britain there were tensions, as well as during the Civil War, Great Britain economically supported South. International Arbitration Court sentenced the UK to pay 15 million. Thanks to clever negotiation, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Hamilton Fish has ensured that Britain finally agreed to the verdict. As a result, attempts to take the Irish Fenians from the United States of Canada and used as collateral in the struggle for Irish independence emerged diplomatic tensions between London and Washington. When the American authorities at the insistence of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Fenian leaders were arrested on American soil and quickly put an end to this case, the US-British relations have improved again.
. Controversial issue was the policy toward Cuba and the Dominican Republic
. During the Cuban rebellion against Spanish rule in the United States have become louder calls for military intervention in the Caribbean island. Requirements to free slaves often served as a pretext to justify conquest of the island. This applies even to a close friend of Grant's War Minister, John A. Rolinzu. Minister of Foreign Affairs of Fish and chairman of the Senate Foreign Committee, Senator Charles Sumner, . however, . prevented rash action against Spain and after the death Rolinza in September 1869 were able to convince Grant to the correctness of their policy of non-interference,
. Led by Grant's personal secretary, Colonel Orville E. Babcock, friends, and speculators have incited the President to the annexation of the Dominican Republic. Minister of Foreign Affairs, reluctantly supported these efforts, and Sumner in the Senate, spoke against the draft treaty which was rejected. For Grant, this meant a heavy defeat. Charles Sumner was removed from his post as chairman of the Foreign Committee, and in the Republican Party further intensified the differences between the factions.
Despite all the criticism, Grant was thinking about the third term. He was guided by financial interests, as at the end of his second term, had a few thousand dollars and in the future after the presidency is no solid income. Besides his family and he enjoyed life in the White House. However, the House of Representatives clearly expressed 234 votes to 18 against the violation of the traditions of two terms. Deputies saw this (and incorrectly) violation of political ideas "founding fathers".
At the end of the second term with a heavy heart, Grant left the White House and went with his wife in the world travel. Wherever I go Grant, he met everywhere with great honor. After returning to the U.S. in 1879, his popularity has not diminished. Even the scandals during the tenure of the president, seemed to have not touched him personally or have been forgotten. He was and remained a hero of the Civil War. Even once again raised the question of his candidacy for the presidency, but Republicans chose who later became president of James A. Garfield.
Grant finally walked away from politics and, thanks to the generous support of friends, bought a house in New York. -An attempt to earn his living by his own brokerage firm, which he founded with the help of a loan of 150 000 U.S. industrialist William Vanderbilt, two years later ended in bankruptcy. Without the means and the patient with cancer of the larynx, Grant accepted the offer of Mark Twain to publish his memoirs. A week later, after working on his personal memories, Grant died July 23, 1885 in Mount McGregor, New York. Memoirs of General Grant became a bestseller and brought the family share of profit of 450 000 dollars of financial security.
Despite the military successes in the fight for the unity of the country in the history of U.S. Grant is a weak president. He was considered a passive politician, who served as indications of the Congress, rather than implement their own ideas. After the loss of credibility of the presidential institution in Johnson to address emerging challenges was to strengthen the position of executive power and take over the leadership of the various factions in Congress. Grant could not accomplish this task. Cases of corruption, especially during his second term as president, represented his government in an unfavorable light. Policy in relation to the southern states, often measured as a failure, is now considered more differentiation: after all, Grant was trying to protect the civil rights of blacks, when most Republicans have abandoned this. What policy measures he had taken to approve civil rights, is controversial. The use of military means seems more than problematic. Grant understood and agreed, . that white racism of the southern states, . indifference in the North and constitutional conservatism, . reinforced by the economic crisis and political schism within the Republican Party, . exclude the possibility of equal rights for blacks in the South,
. Grant is accused of what he his economic and financial policies favored the industrialists on the east coast. But they were young, emerging industries, which were largely determine the country's economy for a long time. What the end of his presidency, announced a return to a currency based on metallic money, promised a positive impact on economic development.
. Grant has a significant influence on the history of the United States for more than fifteen years
. While his achievements as an officer in the army of the Union to preserve the unity of the country are well known, . it seems, . that his presidency Grant perceived as a kind of prelude to a political peace: in conjunction with the political naivete of this position has created a risk of manipulation,
. This negative assessment is not least the result of the glorification of war hero and Grant's high hopes that President Grant was unable to justify.