Benedict of Nursia, ST.( The founder of Western monasticism.)
Comments for Benedict of Nursia, ST.
Biography Benedict of Nursia, ST.
Born in Nursi, a town in the Sabine mountains in Umbria, Italy, ca. 480; died in Monte Cassino, ca. 547. The two main sources of information about the life and ministry of St.. Benedict - the second book of interviews St.. Gregory the Great, written ca. 597, and the Holy charter, written by Benedict to set up their monastic communities.
Cicero described the Sabines as severissimi homines - ie. as people who have traditionally distinguished by severe temper. In his family - a family of small landowners - Pope Benedict is likely to receive education in the spirit of ancient Roman virtues of 'seriousness' (gravitas) and 'severity' (severitas), softened Christian piety and morality. There is little reason to trust the legend that he came from a noble family Anicius. At age 14, Benedict for the completion of education was sent to Rome, accompanied by his nurse Cyril. Permeated aversion to idleness, . luxury and depravity of city life and the growing feeling in his monastic vocation, . Benedict fled Rome and for a time settled in the city Effide (now Affida), . where he was sheltered community 'godly husband',
. Burdened acquired a reputation miracle worker, he decided to become a recluse and retired to a mountain cave in the valley of anions, near Subiaco.
In his cave Benedict spent in solitude for three years, waging a harsh ascetic life, which served as a model for the feats of the Egyptian Desert Fathers. However, his privacy has been violated - at first a certain presbyter, who at the feast of Easter brought him lunch, and then many people who have sought his soul-saving instructions, and even the 'rush to act under its beginning' (interview 2). Yielding to the request, he agreed to take the time of the monastery Vikovaro, but left the monastery because the monks found it generally too strict and tried to poison Benedict. In Subiaco Benedict inaugurated a new organization of monastic life, the main features of which were joint implementation of the daily cycle of worship with a common singing, reading and science classes, as well as physical labor. Here he was joined by two of the most illustrious of his disciples, Maurus and Plakida, later canonised.
In the end, because of harassment by the subdeacon Florence Benedict was forced to abandon them based in Subiaco 12 small monastic communities, and went to Monte Cassino. Allotment at the top by the now famous Kassinskoy Mount Benedict was given some nobles. Here St.. Benedict settled on the rest of his life, having built for his community first of the big monasteries kassinskih.
In Monte Cassino Benedict wrote his Charter. This remarkable document, consisting of 73 short glavok and entry, remained unchallenged rule of monastic life in Western Europe for almost 5 centuries. The Charter is relatively soft (compared to the extremely harsh rules of life eastern monasticism). The main focus there is on the principles of monastic residences as the principal means of achieving the sanctity of life, and the virtues of humility and obedience. The statute strictly carried out the principle of unity of command: the Abbot was responsible for their decisions only to God, though provided for offset bad abbots power of the local bishop. Painted in detail, how the terms should be carried out daily prayers along with the convent horarium (read-Hours), which allocated time for study and for the physical labor. Contain provisions for food, clothing, shoes and other things, and emphasizes the need for common ownership of property. Thoroughly described the chain of command senior. If the community is very high, the abbot may delegate its authority priori or deans; on all major issues of the abbot should consult with an old monk.
The purpose of Benedict, as he himself said that it was a 'school serving the Lord'. This 'school' to play an important role in the preservation of Christian culture throughout the early Middle Ages, and in determining the nature of the subsequent development of medieval society. Memorial Day St. 11 July (in the Russian Orthodox Church on March 14 Old Style).