RILEY Gilbert (Ryle Gilbert)( English philosopher, whose work served as the main stimulus for the development of modern philosophy of consciousness.)
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Biography RILEY Gilbert (Ryle Gilbert)
Analysis of consciousness, held Riley, is a linguistic study 'mentalistskih' (ie. related to consciousness) of terms such as 'imagination', 'desire', 'memory', 'will', 'intention', 'decision' and 'faith', and those assumptions or errors that lead to their improper use. As Ryle linked misuse of these terms with the work of individual philosophers, and he contrasted the 'ordinary' and empirical 'sensible' use of words ( 'when a person imagines something, . all, . he actually makes, . - It ..,
. etc. '), he was reckoned with D. Austin to the representatives of linguistic philosophy (' philosophy of ordinary language ').
Ryle was born in Brighton (Sussex County) August 19, 1900. In 1925 he became a member of Christ Church College, Oxford University, and in 1945 was awarded the post of Distinguished Professor. During the Second World War he served in counterintelligence. In 1948-1971 was the editor of a leading British philosophical journal 'Mind' ( 'Mind'). Died at Whitby Rhyl (county of North Yorkshire) October 6, 1976.
In his discussion Ryle relied on the works of Husserl, M. Heidegger and Ludwig Wittgenstein. Main problem, . he puts: 'What makes a philosophical question philosophical? " The answer is, . that the philosophical activity consists in unleashing the kind of intelligent nodes, . in particular - 'categorical mistakes' and other conceptual substitution,
. Misunderstandings that arise between different disciplines and areas of discourse, can be solved by allocating logically different categories of terms or concepts. For example, the word 'army' is different in type from the word 'division'. There is another entity, 'the army', which would be floated on the components of the army divisions, while in some kind of metaphysical reserve. The most important works Raila on this topic: Systematically misleading expressions (Systematically Misleading Expressions, 1931) and categories (Categories, 1938).
By the end of 1940's Ryle attempted to 'give an example of the analytical ax, chopped some well-known and formidable Gordian knot'. The result was the book The concept of consciousness (The Concept of Mind, 1949), in which criticism of the views held Descartes. According to Ryle, Descartes' conception of rights is based on 'systematically incorrect' use of the terms' mental series' and leads to the dogma of 'ghost in the machine'. In contrast to Descartes Ryle put forward the thesis that man - a rational animal, and not incorporeal subject of consciousness, ephemeral, and dwelling in an alien body. The terms 'mental series' in reality not represent the mysterious ghostly events like 'backstage', but occurring in public actions, openly expressed opinions and dispositions, ie. disposition and ability to act in a certain way and talk. For example, if we assert that students understand complex fraction, this does not mean that we report on a mysterious and intimate illumination. We fix its ability to solve relevant problems. In determining whether or not the student understood something, his introspection ( 'introspection') is neither necessary nor sufficient
. Among other books Raila - Dilemmas (Dilemmas, 1954); rational animal (A Rational Animal, 1962), Development of views of Plato (Plato's Progress, 1966), the activity of thinking (The Thinking of Thoughts, 1968) and a collection of works (Collected Papers, 1971 ).