Pacheco Francisco( Artist)
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Biography Pacheco Francisco
Francisco Pacheco (1564-1645). The term "golden age" usually denoted the Spanish literature of the time of Cervantes and Lope de Vega, that is, the period of its greatest prosperity. But this term is quite properly could be attributed to Spanish painting of XVII century, to the era of Velazquez, Zurbaran and Murillo. True, the "golden age" of literature began somewhat earlier and coincides with the apogee of Spanish rule in the world, but in painting, he comes half a century later. The flowering of spiritual and mystical moods in literature, comedy, picaresque novel - all this diversity ends with the death of Lope de Vega in 1635. This was a period of creative maturity Velazquez and Zurbaran, it coincides with the rule of a passionate lover of painting King Philip IV, which collects in your yard the best masters of Spain. The heyday of Spanish painting nearly completed in the 60 years of the XVII century, when they die Velasquez (1660), Zurbaran (ca. 1664), Alonso Cano (1667). Only Murillo continues to operate until 1682, deepening and developing the tradition of his older contemporaries.
. But the creators and the creators of the Golden Age of Spanish painting were not only masters of the highest class - genius, but middle managers and artists - talented hardworking Laborers
. The latter can be attributed, and a painter, draftsman, art theorist and poet, Francisco Pacheco.
Pacheco role in creating a new style of Spanish art is extremely high, although it does not belong to the best painters of the XVII century. Pacheco was primarily a theorist and promoter of new ideas. His house in Seville, where the going is not only artists, but many outstanding minds of Spain, contemporaries called the Academy. Among those who have been friends with Pacheco and visited him regularly, you should call first and foremost writers and poets - Cervantes, Hernando de Herrera and others. There were times he and archaeologist Rodrigo Caro, and scientists - linguist Argote de Molina, a historian Arias Montano, art theorist Pablo de Cö?spedes. In short, Pacheco has created a dock that its highly cultural environment, which was so essential to the Spanish society.
The son of a sailor, a nephew of the monk-humanist from Seville, Pacheco was born in a small town in the province of Cadiz. "After studying in Seville at the L. Fernandez, he made a trip to France. In 1611 he visited the royal court at Seville and founded its own scenic studio. Here until 1617 he studied the great Velazquez, who became his son-Pacheco. It was in the house of Pacheco, Velö?zquez was the diverse knowledge, which subsequently, during his employment with the king, allowed him to pass for cultured and highly educated man. From the workshop Pacheco and Alonso Cano went, but here, perhaps some time studied Zurbaran.
Pacheco, apparently, from the very first steps in art had a tendency to theoretical work. His famous book "The Art of Painting", to see the light only in 1649, but almost entirely written in 1622, was the result of its longstanding practice of the painter and teacher. Authority Dacheko as a connoisseur of art was great. This is evidenced by the fact that Pacheco in 1618 was in the service of the Inquisition as a censor on the art.
Book Pacheco of interest from many points of view. First, it is the source of many of the background of Velazquez. Secondly, it outlines the practical side of the beautiful crafts of the time. And thirdly, the evidence against moribund romanizma (imitation of the Italian masters of the late Renaissance) with realistic tendencies that are increasingly gaining popularity among artists. This book combines the traditional artistic thinking and at the same time commitment to progressive ideas, which makes the master as the basis. Importance attached by Pacheco working with nature, that was at odds with the basic idea of imitating models romanizma. He writes: "I think, . that the dressed mannequin, . as Nature Morte, . can not replace a living nature, . I prefer to, . and if he could have it always and at all times, not only for the image of heads, . nudity, . hands, . feet, . but also to correct the image of folds of cloth and silk, and the rest, . it would be very good ",
. Further, he recognizes Caravaggio "the great imitator of nature". We know how great the role of Caravaggio in the composition of realistic art of the XVII century. Pacheco served as a conductor karavadzhizma on Spanish soil, opening the front of their students new ways in art.
In his paintings Pacheco further from the ideas romanizma than in theory. This is evidenced already early in his work, in which prevail realistic features (series of paintings from the life of St.. Pedro Nolasco for the monastery of La Merced Calzada at Seville, 1600-1601).
Great importance for the artist had his visit in 1611 in Toledo and Madrid. In the first city he became acquainted with the work of El Greco, and the second - with the richest royal collection. There is, apparently, he had received some very important lessons painterly skill, as well as on his return to Seville painting it becomes more confident and freer. This can be seen by one of his most famous paintings - "St. Sebastian "(1616), commissioned by the hospital. It depicts the saint in the hospital, reclining on a bed with a cup in his hand. Near the monastery as a nurse depicts St.. Irina. The image has the most prosaic nature, and the only scene of the martyrdom of the saint in the window, the room resembles that in front of us religious composition. Contrasting style of painting resembles the work of El Greco.
According to the artist, they (until 1647) was written more than one hundred and sixty portraits. Some of them entered the unfinished book of images Seville celebrities of his time, which was greatly appreciated contemporaries. Poet Quevedo wrote: "For your glory, Seville, scholar, connoisseur and virtuoso skilful pencil completed these drawings, which are so honored by all nations. Their praise is not for the brilliance, but for the fact that with the help of coal and pencil Pacheco was able to give them not only similarities, but to invest in their soul and life. "
The artist himself calls the portrait "ingenious invention" and one of the most difficult genres of painting. He believes that the portrait should not only be similar to the model, but also well written. Such works Pacheco, as "Portrait of a Knight of the Order of Santiago" (1626, New York, private collection), it is to meet these requirements.
Pacheco, whose life unites two epochs in Spanish painting, has died at age ninety in Seville. He was a scholar and a brilliant orator, scholar and poet, and in painting combined two different principles: the imitation of Italian models and the desire for a realistic vision. We can say that Pacheco instinctively drawn to the principles of the new art. No wonder he reared his greatest representative - Velasquez.