PORDENONE Giovanni Antonio( Artist)
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Biography PORDENONE Giovanni Antonio
Giovanni Antonio Pordenone (1483/84-1539). The artistic development of the Italian High Renaissance-era rapidly, dramatically and diverse. Immediately after the first quarter of the XVI century, reached the highest levels of development of Renaissance art (in the works of Raphael, Michelangelo and other artists), the arena serves numerous and restless new generation. It thinks the art is not so, or not quite as classics of the Renaissance at its most harmonious stage. Declare yourself in the middle of Italy such experimenters, seekers of the new expressive language, as Rosso, Pontormo, Parmigianino. In northern Italy, which has its tradition and its lay the path to the art of painting, say a new word in the art happened in such masters as
. Correggio, Lorenzo Lotto, and Giovanni Antonio Pordenone.
. These three do not constitute a single school or group
. They work in various art centers and many features of his art differ. But, however, have something in common. In varying degrees, they paid tribute to the free picturesque, attracted to the transfer of light and air and space, the saturated air. All of them are more or less emphasize the dramatic contrasts of light and shadow, and in general tend to heightened expressiveness.
Something similar is observed, however, and Michelangelo, Raphael, and even at a certain stage of its evolution. However, the Northern Italian artists often go much further than the Roman Florence, in the development of pictorial colouristic, texture, black and white special effects, sounding agitated.
. Justice demands noted that such a painter as Pordenone, is slightly inferior to the natural talent of local artists of the Italian North
. But in the era of the great geniuses, even remarkable masters have to retreat into the background. It is hard to compete with Giorgione and Titian, a Correggio. But their own - and paid - and there are advantages in Pordenone. It is perhaps simpler and more courageous, sharper and harder than the other painters of Venice and the Venice area. Moreover, he was experiencing the same tough strivings that most of his contemporaries, colleagues and rivals in the art.
Giovanni Antonio Pordenone - born in the provincial town of Friuli, located on the north-east of Venice. Provincial origins and art education, received away from the "capital" of painting, left its mark on the master works. He has always been a bit more straightforward and simple-hearted than its more sophisticated companions, and, quite naturally, without violence on themselves drawn to a peculiar rough expressiveness. This is partly limited its creative possibilities, but also gave his writings a kind of appeal.
Already in the early years of the new, sixteenth century are beginning to work actively in Venice, Giorgione and Titian. Visitors to this city a young painter from the nearby Friuli, of course, immediately notice the new masters, like everyone else who has anything to do with the painting. Pordenone is trying to master the soft, melodious rhythm tracks by Giorgione, Titian's sensuous full color. But it turned out that the newcomer from the provinces rather independent and stroptiv. It is organically incapable of writing either in the spirit of Giorgione, with his contemplation and mystery, not in the spirit of Titian, with its solemnity and cheerfulness. Sharpness, passion, the sharpness and directness of expression ineradicable in the art of Pordenone, and all his creative biography becomes a battleground of classical harmony of the Renaissance with loud, violent manifestations of some insatiably passion.
. Altar 'paintings and frescoes, executed for the churches in several small towns in Italy (Treviso, Alviano, etc.), show these features paintings Pordenone
. Visit Rome (until 1520) and familiarity with the masterpieces of Ra-faelya the Vatican not persuaded recalcitrant masters from Friuli. He emphasized and intentionally distorting the proportions of figures, has resorted to large-scale violations of expressive relationships and contributes to their songs vortex motion. His characters express their feelings and thoughts with such fury that does not permit either Raphael or Titian.
Style Pordenone could not particularly attract capital and customers seem strange, unbridled, "wild" that violates all sense of proportion. I had to leave the papal capital, and again go to small cities and towns, where they could get a job. In the years 1520-1521 Pordenone executed frescoes in the cathedral of Cremona - perhaps the most important and best preserved among all the monumental works of the master.
The frescoes are devoted to the most dramatic events of the Gospel - Passion of Christ. "Mockery of Christ," "The Way to Calvary" and other scenes of this series crowned with a great "Crucifixion". It is filled to overflowing anxious, excited people. Desperate gesticulating and disputing the soldiers, shocked grief near the condemned men, fear and curiosity overwhelmed the audience, and emits the spirit of sacrifice on the cross in the last convulsions of. Majestic restraint of the classical Renaissance, almost forgotten in a kind of universal frenzy. It is no accident, this tragic fresco in Cremona is included among the prototypes of "Guernica" by Picasso - the new Apocalypse of XX century.
Close to the described impression, and other murals Cremona Cathedral. In "Lamentation" strikes a sharp, almost piercing eye view of the dead body of Christ, with broken nails palms of hands and feet, mercilessly exposed on the viewer. Similar quality differs and painting in the cathedral of the city of Pordenone and Spilimbergo Kortemadzhore, where the artist worked in 1520-ies.
Since 1527 he has lived in Pordenone Venice. While working for the Venetian churches he has largely considered the tastes of customers and viewers, that is, at least not too bewilder and frighten them with his unusual work. And if the pressure of energy and passion they are not weak, then at least come in a more "civilized" channel. Pordenone even competes with itself one time Titian for success among the Venetians. However, connoisseurs of oil painting without hesitation chose Titian, but in the fresco paintings Pordenone, his courage, expressiveness and rich experience, had certain advantages. Unfortunately, too many of the Venetian frescoes Pordim nowadays killed or seriously injured, so it is difficult even today to draw up a definite idea about them. It can not be overlooked as we go along, that he admired Titian these creations of his rival. But it so happened, . that late, . "Venetian" style of Pordenone (a little more calm, . soft and beautiful, . than it was before) before samples, . outside Venice, . because in these years, the master often traveled to the mainland, . the "firm ground", . as they say in Venice,
. So were executed frescoes in the church of Madonna di Campagna in Piacenza, where the master was in the first half of 1530-ies. Emotion and impulse, is not easily held within the boundaries of classical compositional formula, there is an altar in the painting "The Annunciation", created in 1537 for the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Murano.
. The fate of the artist's works had been a difficult and dramatic
. Much has been preserved, many remote and little known, and because few of the great artists who lived after Pordenone, guessed the meaning of his art. Today we can say with certainty, . that it starts with the line "furious" Painting in Venice, . which later would be immortalized discoveries Tintoretto, . and later contribute to the birth of a new pictorial style in Italy and other countries - the Baroque style.,