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Varpakhovskii Leonid

( Russian film director, painter, theatrical figure)

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Biography Varpakhovskii Leonid
Varpakhovskii, Leonid (1908-1976), Russian film director, painter, theatrical figure. People's Artist of the RSFSR (1966), Honored Artist of Georgia (1964). Born March 29, 1908 in Moscow into the family lawyer, a graduate of the law faculty of Moscow State University. Mother, director and teacher of children's amateur theater, graduated from the Institute of noble maidens in Tiflis, studied at the School of Drama AI Adasheva simultaneously with Vakhtangov and SG Birman. Varpakhovskii childhood fond of music and theater, in school years playing in drama circle, put a few pieces. Nine years was given to the Bolshoi ballet school, a year out of school and learned to play piano. In 1923 he became a student of the Conservatory. In the house there were Varpakhovskii F. Chaliapin, E. Geltzer, V. Mayakovsky, D. Burliuk and other famous people. 'Deified' actor NM Radin (1872-1935), Varpakhovskii never missed one of his performances and finally fell in love with the theater. Then considered the best theater of Meyerhold.

Autumn 1925 Varpakhovskii unsuccessfully tried to enter the State higher experimental theater workshop. In the three years was a full course of separation theory and music at the Conservatory, . worked briefly in silent film pianist, . in 1925 organized the students and faculty of the Conservatory 'first synthetic experimental chamber ensemble' (PAX) - 'is not jazz, . but the experiment on the path to jazz ', . which was the conductor, . Executive and Head,
. Fond of music of Scriabin and to find in an illuminated theater

. From 1928 to 1931 he studied in oriental branch of the literary department of MSU, along with Kukryniksy designed the two performances in Moscow theaters - "Trouble" Knorre F. (Trama, 1930) and "City of stupid" by Saltykov-Shchedrin (Theater of Satire, 1932)
. Worked as an assistant director in the TRAM, reviewed plays, has published several articles. The summer of 1933 was adopted by the scientific secretary of Theater. Vs.Meyerholda and worked there for almost three years, watching the rehearsal Wizard. Ready for him a special literature, iconographic material, studied sound design. Be led by the theater research laboratory (SRL), together with his colleagues developed methods for recording the stage of. Thus was invented 'hodomer' - the device to record the scene, the actors playing. Varpakhovskii sought to perpetuate the performances of his work in this direction began with "Lady of the Camellias by Dumas. Dismiss with Meyerhold, Varpakhovskii in 1935 left the theater, passing the laboratory their archives - the fruit of three years work. Launched in 1935 and continued in the 1960 work on the 'performance score' based on the material "Ladies of the Camellias" and "Queen of Spades Tchaikovsky was crucial for the formation of Varpakhovskii-producer, became his 'tour of direction'.

In 1935, enriched with experience of working with Meyerhold and wanting to learn the principles of 'the Stanislavsky system', Varpakhovskii entered the studio in the Theater. Evg.Vahtangova. February 22, 1936 he was arrested 'for the promotion Trotskyism' (due to a relative of his first wife AA Malikovskoy, student H. Neuhaus, shot in 1938) and April 4, was sentenced to three years' deportation to Kazakhstan. Active and full of innovative ideas, he was able to settle in Theater of Russian Drama. For "optimistic tragedy" director received a thank-you letter from the leadership of Kazakhstan. 58, n. 10) and sentenced to 10 years in labor camps in the north-east. In September 1940 began his longest and most difficult period of Kolyma in general work in the camps, and then in kultbrigadah Sevlaga and Maglaga.

In 1944 Varpakhovskii put in Magadan Music and Drama Theater. M. Gorky's play "The Rape of Europa" L. Verneuil, displease the provincial authorities, however, left him in the theater. His "La Traviata" G. Verdi (1945), the first opera, set in Kolyma, was a loud event in the cultural life of the region. Varpakhovskii got its second wind, believed in its strength, in 1944-1947 put a few more performances. Performer as Violetta I. Ziskind became his wife and devoted friend. In mid-June 1947 he was again arrested on a false denunciation, but the condemnation was not followed. After his release from prison he went to the Ust-Omchug, where he worked as director of the Central Club for six years and pitched 11 performances. Results in the Kolyma region Varpakhovskii carried out 23 performances, including plays by N. Gogol, Maxim Gorky, Alexander Ostrovsky, E. Schwartz, S. Mikhalkov, B. Gorbatova etc..

Liberated in 1953, Varpakhovskii went to Tbilisi. In Theater. Sir.doc put the "Seagull" by Chekhov, whose success is determined his fate, "Days Turbins" by Mikhail Bulgakov (1954), "The lavender garden" Ts Solodar (1955). Successfully worked in theaters in Kiev, Kharkov, Leningrad. In 1956 he was allowed to return to Moscow in 1957, rehabilitated. Appointed in 1957, chief director of the Moscow theater. Yermolova, . director worked hard and efficiently: staged performances in several theaters at once, . worked in different genres, . organized the festivals, . created a circus program, . worked on television, . was a member of the Boards of the WTO (currently STD), . there led the filmmaking lab, . led creative workshops at the Advanced Directing Courses at GITIS them,
. Lunacharsky, wrote articles

. Moscow Varpakhovskii staged more than 20 performances: "Masquerade" by M. Lermontov, . "The Chamber" S. Aleshin (1962), . "Optimistic tragedy" Vishnevsky (1967) and "Mad Money" by A. Ostrovsky (1969) - of the Maly Theater, "The Sixth of July" Shatrova (1965) and "Days of Turbins" by Mikhail Bulgakov (1967) - in the Chekhov Art Theater,
. Gorky, "The Curious Cevidzh" Dzh.Patrika (1966) - in the Theater. Moscow City Council, "Sold the Rain" R. Nash (1972) - in the theater of Stanislavsky and others. In 1968, Gorky's play, set "at the bottom" in the Theater of the People's Army in Sofia.

Varpakhovskii created his own theatrical method - the method of stage composition, which is considered the basis of the director's career. In Varpakhovskii joined a talented artist, historian, expert on literary theory, a sociologist and musician.

The last production Varpakhovskii Ostrovsky's play "Wolves and Sheep" at the Moscow Drama Theater. Stanislavsky. Work on the play "Halfway to the top of the" P. Ustinova in Theater. Mossovet left unfinished. In the past three years, the director suffered from severe depression, with difficulty forced myself to work.

Varpakhovskii died in Moscow on 12 February 1976.

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