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Toni Morrison

( American novelist, Nobel Prize in literature)

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Biography Toni Morrison
Morrison, Toni (Morrison, Toni) (p. 1931), American writer, Nobel Prize for Literature (1993). Kloi Anthony Wofford (Wofford - her real name) was born February 18, 1931 in Lorraine (pc. Ohio). In 1953 I received a Bachelor of Arts in Howard University (Washington) in 1955 - master of arts degree from Cornell University. She taught at the University of Texas, in 1957 returned to Howard University, where she met with the architect from Jamaica G. Morrison and married him, they had two sons. In 1964 they divorced.

The fall of 1964 before being appointed assistant editor in book publishing branch of the firm 'Random House' in g.Serakyus (pc. New York), producing educational literature. In 1967 became a senior editor and moved to New York. Edited books of famous African-Americans (Mohammed Ali, Andrew Young, Angela Davis and others), while sending the manuscript to publishing his first novel, "The most blue eyes" (The Bluest Eye). Published in 1970 the novel was warmly greeted by criticism.

Continuing to work in the 'Random House', in 1971-1972, Morrison taught as assistant professor in English at the University of New York. Then she began to write the novel "Sula" (Sula), published in 1972. The book tells about the relationship of two women, one of them eventually takes strict moral standards of their closed the black community, another rejects them. The novel hit the bestseller list, selected by the Club 'Book of the Month' in 1973 was nominated for the National Book Award, and excerpts from the printed magazine 'Redbuk'.

From 1976-1977, Morrison was a guest lecturer (on contract) at Yale University, worked on the novel "The Song of Solomon" (Song of Solomon, 1977). The novel is based on the folk story of spiritual journey. The main character, whose great-grandfather was able to get rid of slavery, leaving the house of a wealthy father and goes in search of family treasures hoarded once, which ultimately turns into restoring family tree. The book won the National Prize of Literary Critics Circle Award and the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. Folk traditions and formed the basis for the novel "Smolyanov chuchelko" (Tar Baby, 1981).

In 1983, Morrison left her job in publishing. In 1984 became a professor at the Albert Schweitzer chair at the University of New York at Albany. Published in 1987 novel "Favorite" (Beloved) received the 1988 Pulitzer Prize. Returning to the theme of slavery, the author shows the devastating effect on his mother's feelings. The action takes place in Ohio after the Civil War. The plot - the history of Negro women, who preferred to kill his daughter, than to give it to slavery. The book was recognized as the best work of Morrison and became her first bestseller. Its other works: the novel "Jazz" (Jazz, . 1992), . book "Playing in the dark: Whiteness and the literary imagination" (Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination, . 1992), . based on lectures, . delivered at Harvard University, . her seventh novel, "Paradise" (Paradise, . 1998) and children's book "Big Box" (The Big Box, . 2000) and "The Book of bad people" (The Book of Mean People), . which was published in 2001,

In 1989, Morrison was invited to the chair of the Robert F. Goena at Princeton University. Morrison has received many awards, including the National Book Foundation medal for distinguished contribution to American literature (1996). Member of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

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