Lady Bird Johnson( spouse of the President 36 th President)
Comments for Lady Bird Johnson
Biography Lady Bird Johnson
(December 22, 1912 - ...)
As the wife of the 36 th president, she has done since 1964 in Path 330 000 km, to find supporters of its program. "Embellish - means to take care of the physical and moral state of the world we leave to our children," she said. Lady Bird helped develop a program of assistance difficult kids, called "Primary care". Personally planted many trees and flowers, breaking new parks in different regions of the United States has identified areas that should be under state protection. Particular attention was paid while the aesthetic appearance of the capital. Lady Bird Johnson "graced" America. For five years in the White House, Lady Bird took part in 718 events and 164 said in the speech. It was calculated that 75% of the time she spent on the implementation of various public duties.
Since 60-ies wife every president tried to find for themselves any area of activity in public life. Jacqueline Kennedy stood for culture and art. Lady Bird Johnson "graced" America. As First Lady, she has done since 1964 in Path 330 000 km, to find supporters of its program. "Embellish - means to take care of the physical and moral state of the world we leave to our children," she said. On its initiative in Congress passed a law on enforcement of the order of highways, popularly called "The Law of Lady Bird". Following this law, for example, along the main highways of the country could put up only a small number of billboards.
The decision to remove advertising posters encountered resistance Entrepreneurs. In "Chicago Sun-Times cartoon appeared fairly apt description: along the highway is a shield with the inscription" Remove Lady Bird.
To give the program proper form, she invited representatives from all states in the country on the "Conference of genuine beauty". In his speech clearly showed the relationship between the ugliness, filth and crime and urged architects, environmentalists and philanthropists to make greater efforts to ensure that beautify the country.
. Lady Bird helped develop a program of assistance difficult kids, called "Primary care"
. Personally planted many trees and flowers, breaking new parks in different regions of the United States has identified areas that should be under state protection. Particular attention was paid while the aesthetic appearance of the capital. She rode in a car in Washington and indicated to staff those areas that had to be put in order and to embellish. On its initiative, a special "First Women's Committee for the beautiful capital city", whose goal was to make Washington a more beautiful view. When Lady Bird praised for these endeavors, she modestly replied: "I just jumped on the move in an already moving train". And once even expressed the wish that on her tomb was the inscription: "She planted three trees". Particularly surprised by her praise of Robert F. Kennedy, who was a staunch opponent of her husband: "Everyone recognizes that you are doing a wonderful thing - and a moment later he added: - This applies to your husband". To pay tribute to her efforts, many parks and reserves were called by her name.
Her father, Thomas Jefferson Taylor, at the end of XIX century came from Alabama to East Texas. He was a merchant and sold everything they could possibly be. On the money saved bought the land, then returned to Alabama, where he married Minnie Patillo. Thomas Taylor was born in England, and his wife - from Scotland. They had three children: two sons and a daughter. She was born Dec. 22, 1912 and was named Claudia Alta, and when she was two years old, the black cook, Taylor said wistfully: "Be pure, like a bird". Since then, its so-called: "Lady Bird" (the bird).
Lady Bird grew up in a wealthy family, but in six years, she lost her mother. Since then takes care of her Aunt Effie, . which she later said: "It opened my eyes to the beauty, . not taught the most trivial things, . needed in the life of a girl, . example, . how to dress beautifully, . how to make friends, ,
. In Texas, she went to the depths of a miserable school, one classroom
. In 13 years, learned to drive a car and in high school went by car to the town of Marshall, 20 miles from home. In 1928 she entered the University of Texas at Austin, which studied art. There has always been an excellent student and received a diploma in 1933, a year studied journalism and worked in the student newspaper editorial.
As a reward for great achievements in studies father financed her trip to Washington. Before his departure, an old acquaintance, Eugene Bohringer, put her hand addressed Texan Lyndon B. Johnson, who worked in Washington at the Bureau of the Congress MP Richard Kleberga. Lady Bird took the address, but she had no desire to spend time in Washington in search of some stranger.
. A few weeks after returning from Washington, she met with a friend, who worked in the Parliament of Texas at Austin
. At this time a friend went to a young man and introduced himself to her as he Lindh B. Johnson, and from the first moment he made a good impression on her. She believed that he was "very interesting, extremely energetic good-looking. I knew I had met an exceptional person '. That evening Lyndon was busy, but Lady Bird invited to have breakfast with him the next day at the hotel "Driscoll". After breakfast they went for a walk outside the city. All the time Lyndon tried to make a brilliant impression, talking about family and future plans. They agreed to meet the next day, and, to my great surprise, he proposed to her. Later she told me: "I thought he was joking, but he said quite seriously". Needless to say, she turned him down.
Lyndon, Lady Bird presented to parents and members of Congress Klebergu and asked permission to meet her father. Both immediately liked each other. "Little Man, -" Taylor said, - you have led many young people, but this time we first came to the house of a man ". Several days later, Lady Bird was the second sentence, and again denied. In the end, Lyndon had to return to Washington. He constantly wrote her letters and call him, even sent a photo with a dedication: "Bird-nice girl with her ideals, principles, intelligence and purity from a sincere admirer, Lyndon.
. At 21, Lady Bird was a beautiful, dark-haired girl of medium height
. With higher education, she dreamed of a career in journalism and began working at the office.
. In October 1934, Lyndon love again came to Texas, where he met with Lady Bird and asked for a final answer: "We'll be married, but not in a year, and two weeks later, after a month or once"
. At this time, Lady Bird did not mind. Close friend, Doris Powell, advised me to wait another six months, the same advice given and Aunt Effie. "He can wait" - she believes. Father, by contrast, was ready now to give the blessing, saying: "Daughter. if you are going to wait until Aunt Effie agree, they will never marry '. In this situation, Lyndon issued an ultimatum: "Either we get married now or never. If you let me go now, without your consent, then I will know that you do not love me. "
. Lady Bird paused, then asked: "And you already have a wedding koltsaN" Her dream was to get married in the Episcopal Church Sv.Markusa in San Antonio.
. The wedding took place quickly, without music, with two witnesses
. Schaefer Johnson, Dan Kouilou, at the last second, raced to the nearest store to buy it for 2,5 dollar wedding ring. Crowned their pastor Arthur E. Makkinstri. At the sight of such an incredibly feverish activity, he said: "I hope that the marriage will be strong". So he was. Thirty years later, Lyndon B. Johnson gave to his wife in honor of 51-th birthday of her own photograph with the dedication: "Bird, all the same beautiful girl."
On the wedding day, November 17, 1934, Lyndon was 26 years old, his wife of nearly 22 пЁп+п¦п¦. Honeymoon was spent in Mexico.
The newlyweds settled in Washington, in a small apartment, which they had to pay out of his monthly wage is 267 dollars. They were fairly economical, and the money they had enough. Johnson tried to install as much as possible of political contacts, so often received visitors. Lady Bird gave up their careers for the sake of her husband's political career. She helped him, as she could, led an exemplary housekeeping. He encouraged her desire to dress fashionably, and it inspired him to read the books, noting the most interesting places in them, and was his best sovetchitsey. Johnson often said that "it is the most intelligent and trustworthy adviser," whom he ever knew, and called it "the most interesting and most beloved woman". Sometimes in discussions with advisers, he said: "Let's ask Lady Bird, that she thinks about it". One wrote that he is so accustomed to rely on her, that from any other person does not depend on the way from his wife.
. Attachment to the wife of Lyndon often exhibited in public, hugging and kissing her in any place, but was sometimes arrogant and irascible
. Lady Bird knew his political ambitions and obey them. She did everything she thought was a good wife's duty: serve breakfast and the morning mail in bed, clean his shoes.
In 1937, Johnson decided to run in Texas in the House of Representatives. Lady Bird asked her father's loan of $ 10 000 dollars for the campaign of her husband, which they subsequently returned. Lady Bird all the forces supporting him in the election campaign, but tried to remain inconspicuous. When he was elected to Congress, helped him in his office. Before marriage, her culinary art left much to be desired, and Now she had to learn a lot, because her husband often without warning, brought home hungry colleagues and she had to quickly cook anything.
. February 13, 1941 Lady Bird wrote in her diary: "This evening I was on the first (and maybe last) reception at the White House."
. During the Second World War, Johnson was drafted
. During his absence Lady Bird doing the work of his deputy's office. Now she could not remain aloof from political affairs, so often met in Washington with voters, responded to their letters. When Lyndon came back with a front home, helped write the texts of his speeches.
. In 1943, Lady Bird put the inheritance mother, 17 500 dollars in the acquisition of radio QTIC in Austin and so successfully used it, that soon turned into a profitable enterprise
. After some time, 'QTIC transferred and television. Position the head of the radio station she left only after Lyndon became President.
After ten years of married life of Lady Bird gave birth to a daughter, christened Linda Bird. This happened in Washington March 19, 1944. The second daughter, Lucy Beines, was born July 2, 1947, also in Washington,. Until the first child she had had four miscarriages.
In 1948, Johnson sought positions in the Senate. First Lady Bird took an active part in the election campaign, she made the speech, called voters and asked them to support. Johnson won the election with an advantage of 87 votes, that he owed to his wife. The day before the election, she suggested to wait for the results at the ranch. Lady Bird decided to call first in Austin, where friends and acquaintances asked to divide up the phone book in alphabetical order and call voters, asking them to vote for Lyndon B. Johnson.
. When, in 1954, Johnson won the election, he became the youngest member of the Senate in the history of the United States, and Lady Bird had to appear more frequently in public places.
. In 1955, Johnson suffered a heart attack
. "Hold my hand and be near me. If I have to fight for life, then I must know that you are with me "- he told his wife on the way to hospital. Within five weeks, she did not leave his bed. "If all ends well, I'll go somewhere and close to two hours. I just need to cry, "- said at one of her friends.
. Soon after Lyndon Johnson had already recovered and in 1960 his candidature for the presidential election from the Democratic Party, but was elected was John F. Kennedy, who suggested that Johnson's vice president
. When Kennedy called Johnson about this, the receiver took the Lady Bird. Before I handed the phone to her husband, she said: "I hope you do not become vice-president", but that's what he did. Later she commented on his action by saying: "It was a difficult decision. Personality Lyndon and his temperament is not intended for supporting roles. "
Lady Bird had actively participated in the election campaign in 1960, especially in Texas. Robert Kennedy expressed her appreciation: "Lady Bird, we presented a Texas". Victory in Texas provided then Kennedy presidency. Johnson became vice-president.
Already being the "Second Lady of America, it set itself three objectives:" As much as possible to help Lyndon fulfill any request from Jacqueline Kennedy, to expand its own activity ". Together with her husband, she visited more than ten countries, the verbatim record made during the trips, which was greatly facilitated by the husband reporting to the President. At many events Lady Bird replaced the first lady.
One day, getting ready for a banquet, which was given in honor of her husband, she received a message from the White House: Mrs. Kennedy asked her to be present when giving the award Emmy Evod ". Lady Bird went first to the banquet, quietly disappeared from there, took the prize and said a short speech, and then returned in time for dinner.
. In Greece, when Johnson examined the Acropolis and other sights, Lady Bird always was interested in the date of construction
. Infinitely asked question in the end, the guide brought out of patience, and it's got quite a comprehensive answer: "Mrs. Johnson, are all here, except us with you, goes back to the days before Christmas."
. Lady Bird is not very fond of wearing hats
. At one of the techniques she was sitting next to Jacob S. Potofski, . President of the Union of Textile Workers, . which is quite a long time trying to explain, . that if the President's wife is not a hat, . it will serve as an example for other women, . that will lead to the bankruptcy of textile industry, . at the same time and to greater unemployment,
. Since then, Lady Bird tried in public places appear in the hat.
She never allowed to implicate itself in any intrigue. If she thought that her husband made a mistake, immediately told him about it, and Johnson always listened to her with great attention, although it was quite an experienced politician.
. On the tragic day of Nov. 22, 1963, in Dallas when President Kennedy was shot, Lady Bird was sitting in the car en route to the president, in the back seat, between a husband and Democratic Senator Ralph In
. Yarbouf Texas. When shots rang out, someone from the guard shouted: "Everyone down!", And Lady Bird, crouched. Suddenly the car began to gain speed, and when stopped, and she raised her head, she saw that they were standing in front of the hospital Parklend-Memorial. Senator Yarbouf exclaimed: "Oh my God! President killed!" Lady Bird was at a loss.
. She later recalled: "At this tragic moment, I wanted to be near Mrs. Kennedy and saw her alone in the hall, the door into the operating room, where, apparently, lay president
. Never in my life I do not want to comfort someone and I never felt so helpless ... "
. November 22, 1963, with a rather unusual circumstances, was sworn in on the 36 th President of the United States, Lyndon B. Johnson
. Lady Bird helped her husband make it for the inauguration, and she made a statement.
Lady Bird tried her best to alleviate the Kennedy family these difficult days. Johnsons offered to the widow of the president to remain in the White House as much as she wants.
In the White House, they moved in December 1963. "I feel as if suddenly found herself on stage and should play a role, which is not quite ready," - said Lady Bird. At first, she visited all 132 rooms Residence. "The most important task is to ensure that the White House was a comfortable place for productive work Lyndon", - she said. Chief Curator of the White House has asked to remain at his post and gave him instructions: "The most important person - it's my husband, followed by my daughter, and finally - I". Soon she began to take an active part in the management of the White House. Dzh.B.Uest, chief curator, even expressed the opinion that it behaves "as the chief of a large enterprise. While the White House staff numbered 74 people.
. On the new First Lady of the New York Times "wrote that Mrs. Johnson" the most politicized woman who was in the White House since Eleanor Roosevelt. "
. Like its predecessor, Lady Bird, organized arts festivals, writers and artists invited to the White House, even knowing that in this respect, it could not reach the level of Jacqueline Kennedy.
. For five years the Johnson presidency, the White House had invited more than 200 000 visitors
. Lady Bird looked after all the official lunches and dinners, receptions and other activities, and skilfully improvising when Johnson again caught her by surprise with unexpected guests.
. Johnsons liked to dance, so the White House now more the band played
. Lady Bird, even once remarked: "It's funny, now that we are already over fifty, we usually dance, than ever before in our lives."
When the Johnsons moved into the White House, their daughter Lucy and Linda, like all the girls went on dates. And my mother constantly reminded them of the need to wear a warm shirt, usually adding: "Do not forget to bring protection.
The big event in the chronicle of high society of Washington became president's daughter's wedding. August 6, 1966 Lucy Beynes married to Patrick Nyugentom, and December 9, 1967 Lynda Bird married Marine Captain Charles S. Rabbi, who later became Governor of Virginia. Linda Byrd was the seventh daughter of the President of the United States, who married in the White House.
. When Johnson was asked once why his family members enjoy the same monogram - namely, the "LBD" (LBJ) - he replied: "In order to save
. Thus we can use the same suitcases.
Lady Bird did not avoid the media, she often gave interviews and was expressed to the press. Her favorite subjects in conversations with reporters were crime, women's issues and poverty.
For five years in the White House, Lady Bird took part in 718 events and 164 said in the speech. It was calculated that 75% of the time she spent on the implementation of various public duties. At first it was a bad speaker, and before each performance of its cover feverish excitement, so she began taking lessons rhetoric. Speeches her writing staff, and especially the press secretary Liz Carpenter. As Lady Bird did not give press conferences, Liz personally met with journalists, informing them of the active involvement of the First Lady and passed her views on current political issues.
. Lady Bird wrote articles about the inequality of women, and when Johnson came home, she often met him with the words: "What have you done today to zhenschinN" She even offered to invite him to various positions in his administration more women.
. January 18, 1968 a heated dispute between Lady Bird and the famous singer of this color Kitt, who found different responses in the press
. On this day, Lady Bird had invited dozens of women actively participating in public life, for discussion. Before that they had already been "verified" by the FBI and withstood the test. At the dinner before the discussion was attended by President Johnson, who spoke with the audience and left the room. During the discussion we were talking about the problems of American youth. This took the floor Kitt: "Young people unhappy, because parents are unhappy". She further suggested that young people especially indignant that the still ongoing war in Vietnam, and in conclusion, she expressed some criticism about the war.
. After that, Lady Bird hoped for an "honest" peace in Vietnam, and then spoke about the successes of her husband in the fight against crime and reforms in health and education
. Alluding to the statement Eta Kitt said: "I am not an experienced speaker, as you, but I believe that we are all heart and soul are ready to send more energy to make our country more peaceful, educated and healthy". Johnson attached great importance to the political convictions of his wife. Jack Valenti, one of the closest associates of the president, believed that Johnson views his wife's rated higher than the opinions of his advisers, as always could be sure of the sincerity of her advice, for which never lies, no gain.
. Johnson not only appreciated her advice, but also liked to be with her in the society
. Once he said: "She is very gentle, sensitive, tolerant and truly fair. She has a great character. It is the first person who pointed out my mistakes ". When she left, he always felt ill in her absence, and staff noticed that he became more nervous and impatient, and worked more in the Oval Office.
. Lady Bird sought to create an impression, . it does not influence the decisions of her husband, . but immediately after Kennedy's assassination in an interview for Time magazine, she noticed, . husband is often followed her advice: "I know, . that some of my ideas he implements ",
. And next time said that her husband plays for the role of litmus test: responding to his decision, just like millions of Americans, it thus makes him the first important hint. Regardless of their views, she has always supported his every decision, so never openly expressed, even on the most contentious issue during the presidential rule of Johnson, namely, the question of nuclear war.
. Each travel abroad Lady Bird carefully prepared, studied maps and information material prepared by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
. All she has visited 33 countries, often as a "messenger of goodwill.
. Once, when visiting Johnson Samoa Security Service has banned the president to drink with the leaders of the tribe ceremonial drink "kava kava", but to avoid a diplomatic) scandal, and decided that he would drink a member of the delegation of the President
. Lady Bird volunteered. Following the ceremony, she slept throughout the flight to New Zealand.
Approaching elections 1964. Once again, Lady Bird gave speeches and advocating voters to vote for her husband. Johnson asked her to go to the southern states, where there was a fairly strong opposition to his policies to protect the rights of citizens. Lady Bird, and even ventured to go to the citadel of her husband's opponents. For several days, from 6 to 9 October, she visited 47 cities in eight states.
In some cities, it met with cries of: "We want Barry, we want Barry" (meaning Barry Goldvoter, presidential candidate of the Republican Party). To this she replied calmly and firmly: "Dear friends. We have a democratic country. I respect your right to express their own opinion, but I also want to express their opinion. And the cries silenced.
. Her entourage revolted against voters of the southern states of the wife of the president, but she declared: "I know that you act in a chivalrous and you insult their relationship, but from the outset it was clear that this is not an easy task"
. And she stayed true courage.
When Lady Bird returned home, Johnson did not hide his satisfaction on the conduct of his wife. He called it "one of the most significant political forces in America. I am proud that she is my wife ". Campaign Lady Bird in the southern states is over for Johnson, partial success. He won in three southern states: Virginia, North Carolina and Florida. January 20, 1965 after the inauguration Johnson suddenly leaned over to a beaming wife and kissed her. In the evening they were in five balls, arranged in honor of the inauguration. In all these fun 28 000 people have paid for the $ 25 entrance fee.
In December 1969, in one interview, Johnson insisted that never wanted to become president and in 1964 did so only at the insistence of his wife. Very surprising statement for a man known political ambition and lust for power. Johnson was very demanding, he could not endure the slow and not very effective work. His staff sometimes worked 18 hours a day, even at the end of the week. "I have no stomach ulcers. Keep it in others, "- he was joking when he pointed to the fact that it forces people to work too hard. He even my wife makes great demands. Lady Bird admitted once: "Lyndon always wanted me to look better, more educated, more efficient working. From the people he is constantly waiting for much more than they were in a position to give. It was very exciting, but very tiring. "
The escalation of the war in Indochina, the deteriorating economic situation in the country were the main causes of decline of popularity of Johnson. In October 1967, when visiting the College of William Lady Bird met with the picketers with placards in their hands: "protest against the warmongers in Washington". When she began to speak, students demonstratively left the hall. May 31, 1968 Johnson went on television to appeal to the American people.
. He announced the so-called vetnaminizatsii war (a war were to continue mainly anti-communist forces in South Vietnam with little involvement of U.S. troops), . of the cessation of the bombing of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the refusal to stand for presidential elections of 1968.,
. In his memoirs, Johnson wrote that in 1964 promised my wife not to join the fight after four years, but it was just a tactical move, was covering a political defeat Johnson
. He became so unpopular that he had no chance of re-election.
January 20, 1969, Monday, was the last even longer quite complete, working day Johnson. Short Lady Bird introduced these last hours of the Johnson White House: "The president's wife got up at 7 o'clock and was last inspected all accommodation on the second floor of the White House. Ordered to remove his portrait and a portrait of her husband, who still hung on the wall. Lyndon Johnson also got up at 7 o'clock, summoned all people and gave them final instructions.
Suddenly, he was informed that in two minutes to arrive, the newly elected President Nixon and his family and dogs. When a car drove up the Nixon, Johnson met the new occupants of the White House. After a brief conversation, they went to the Capitol to bring Nixon sworn in as the 37 th President of the United States. "
Lady Bird recalled that, after swearing she had not even said goodbye to Nixon and his wife. Together with her daughters, they went to the farewell dinner, which suited the Minister of Defense Clark Clifford. It was attended by members of the Cabinet of Johnson, his staff and some senators. The window stood a young man with a banner, it was: "LBD 1972".
Leaving the house Clifford, Johnson told a journalist that he came to Washington 30 years ago and still return. The helicopter took him to the airbase Endruz. Whole crowd of people waiting for him there, to hold. The orchestra played a farewell song "Farewell old" and "Yellow Rose of Texas". Was a salute of 21 shots. In the eyes of Lucy, the daughter of Johnson, tears. She said that at this moment her father had lost 21 of his loyal friend, she was referring to security officers. The last time Johnson got into the presidential plane, which took him to Texas.
After moving to the ranch near Lyndon Johnson City, Texas, Lady Bird still from time to time participated in social activities. For example, in May 1969 she went to Fredericksburg, Texas, at the opening of the city park, called her name. On this occasion, the city appeared before the public and Johnson, the first time since he left the White House.
After her husband's death in January 1973, Lady Bird's health deteriorated. Once she felt better, she was again included in the active. Collect donations for the construction of President Johnson Library in Austin, holds symposiums on education, the arts, human rights, on women's issues and environmental protection. She was a member of the supervisory boards of the University of Texas, the National Geographic Society, the protection of national parks and preserves the American Association. But refused to participate in the supervisory boards of many other organizations.
When in 1976 her son, Charles S. Rabb, sought the post of vice-governor of Virginia, she supported his election campaign. In 1976 also saw the bicentennial anniversary of the United States. Lady Bird took part in a special program titled "Salute to America" while reading out excerpts from the Declaration of Independence in 1776. With this program she performed in various cities in the U.S. and Canada.
Lady Bird was always unhappy, if her husband is too long to talk or dance with an attractive woman. There was no big secret that Johnson had a weakness for beautiful young women. Washington gossips readily linked with many ladies of the president.
. In February 1987, a journalist preparing a television program about President Johnson, Lady Bird asked what she thinks about the rumors, notes the special fondness of her husband to women
. With remarkable composure, she replied: "You should know that my husband loved people, all men, and women constitute half of humanity. You think that I was supposed to protect my husband from this polovinyN "Her eyes filled with tears. Wiping them, added: "He loved me and only me. I know it.
In 1970 she published a record made in the White House, called "Diary of the White House," a kind of autobiography, and in 1988 - the book "Flowers on the roads of America". In 1986 he sold the radio and television station in Austin with a great advantage for themselves (27.5 million dollars). She - the most prosperous among all currently surviving ex-wives of presidents.
There is no doubt that Lady Bird Johnson was a great asset in her husband's political career. Sam Reuben, former chairman of the House of Representatives and the political guardian Johnson, with his young age, once said: "The most sensible of all that made Lyndon, was his marriage to this woman."