STEEL Germain (Stal Germaine)( One of the major figures who stood at the origins of the French Romantic and modern literary criticism.)
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Biography STEEL Germain (Stal Germaine)
(1766-1817), Madame de Stael, full name - the Baroness de Stael-Holstein
Born Anne Louise Germaine Necker (Anne Louise Germaine Necker) was born in the Franco-Swiss Protestant family April 22, 1766 in Paris. Her father, a banker, Jacques Necker, became finance minister of Louis XVI; mother, Suzanne Kц?rsch Necker, was the owner of salon, where Anne Louise from an early age to communicate with such illustrious thinkers as Diderot, Zh.d 'Alamber, E. Gibbon and Comte de Buffon.
In 1786 she married Baron Eric Magnus de Staц?l-Holstein (1749-1802), the Swedish envoy in France, but they soon parted. Since the beginning of the French Revolution of 1789 her salon has become an influential politician in the center. She supported the moderate-liberal reforms of his father. After the final dismissal of Necker in 1790 moved closer to the party 'constitutionalists', and later, in 1791, has made appointments to the post of Minister of War, her lover Narbona. A few days before "the September terror 'in 1792 she helped him escape to England, and followed him in early 1793. In May of that year, probably at the insistence of his father, moved to his estate, Coppet near Geneva, where she was to spend most of his life
. Her first significant work on the influence of passion for the happiness of individuals and peoples (De l'influence des passions sur le bonheure des individus et des nations, . 1796) was written under the influence of the era of terror in France, . when she managed to save the lives of many of his friends,
. The fall of Robespierre gave her the opportunity to return in 1795 in Paris, along with political activist and publicist B. Constant, a stormy relationship which was interrupted only in 1810. Being in constant opposition to all political regimes of France, from director to the restored Bourbon monarchy, Steel has repeatedly been harassed, and in 1803 was finally banished from Paris. Coppet, where she took the most prominent representatives of intellectual, social and political elites of his time, a magnet for all who share the sentiments antibonapartistskie. She traveled to Germany (1803-1804), where he met Goethe, Schiller, Fichte, and the leaders of the Romantic movement, and in Italy (1805), France (1806-1807 and 1810) and then to Austria and again in Germany (1808). Largely because of these trips were born two of the most famous of her book: a novel, self-portrait, Corinne (Corinne, 1808; rus. translated 1809-1810) and a treatise on Germany (De l'Allemagne), reflecting the impressions about this country. Last work, which opened in France of German literature and philosophy of primary romantic pores was declared subversive and 'French', it was only published in 1813 in London. Madame de Stael was able to return to Paris in 1814, after the fall of Napoleon
. Probably, . most significant of its work are reflections of the main events of the French Revolution (Considrations sur les principaux vnments de la rvolution franaise, . 1816): its interpretation of events set the tone for all subsequent historians of the liberal wing,
. Among her other works are largely autobiographical novel, Delphine (Delphine, 1803; rus. translated 1803-1804) and a treatise on literature, . considered in connection with social institutions (De la littrature considre dans ses rapports avec les institutions sociales, . 1800), . where the attempt to treat the intellectual revolution in the sociological aspects and formulate a new theory of progress,
The most outstanding woman of his age, Madame de Stael had a strong influence on friends, among whom historians A.de raids and Sismondi, as well as the German critic, translator and poet A. Schlegel. Died Madame de Stael in Paris on July 14, 1817.