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Mikhail Borisovich Khodorkovsky

( Business)

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Biography Mikhail Borisovich Khodorkovsky
photo Mikhail Borisovich Khodorkovsky
Mikhail Khodorkovsky, was born on 26 June 1963. Moscow. Parents: Boris M. Khodorkovsky and his wife, Marina, Filip worked at the factory "Movement", an accurate measurement equipment.

Before 1985. Mikhail Khodorkovsky, has worked as a carpenter in the housing-construction cooperative "Etalon". In 1986. graduated from the Moscow Chemical-Technological Institute. Mendeleev's specialty "engineer-technologist".

In 1987. founded the Center for Scientific and Technical Creativity of Youth (NTTM), later renamed the Center for interdisciplinary scientific and technical programs (MENATEP), and until April 1989. remained its director. According to one version, here is officially engaged in spreading the scientific literature, in reality, as many suggest, imports of computers, scarce in those days in the Soviet Union goods.

One time, the Center rented a shop at Zile, doing there doll with Gorbachev and wooden spoons for export.

According to another version, the Center Khodorkovsky was involved in setting up scientific research on plants, mostly defense. From a certain point, the Center became insufficient working capital - factories could not immediately pay for completed orders, and executing the work would be remunerated on a regular basis. Center began to write letters to various ministries to help financially. Some defense agencies have given the equipment and "collected" 20 thousand. Rub. money. But these were not the funds that were required, and the Center appealed to the Zhilsotsbank asking for a loan. There Khodorkovsky listened carefully and said that would give credit, but do not have the right. Now if we were talking about the bank ... It was then, allegedly, and was created bank, actually "subsistence farming" Center. According to some reports, the Center NTTM Khodorkovsky and created on its basis the bank initially took care of the Council of Ministers of the USSR State Committee on Science and Technology.

In 1988. graduated from the Moscow Institute of National Economy. Plekhanov specialty "chemical engineer, financier". From May 1989 to 1990. Khodorkovsky - Chairman of the Commercial Bank of innovative scientific and technological progress. In 1990. Bank bought out the executive committee of the Moscow City Council NTTM Center and renamed it "MENATEP-Invest (MENATEP - cross-industry and scientific and technical programs)." MENATEP "was one of the first Russian banks, . announced the sale of its shares to the public - 30% of the nominal, . and first, . who used for the television advertising,

From 1990 to 1991. - Director General of interbank association MENATEP ". Since August 1991. to 12 April 1996. - Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Association of credit and financial enterprises "MENATEP".

Since 1992. - Chairman of the Investment Fund for the Promotion of fuel-energy industry with the rights of the Deputy Minister of Fuel and Energy of Russia. Adviser to the Prime Minister of Russia.

Since March 1993. - Deputy Minister of Fuel and Energy of Russia, Yuri Shafranik. Since September 1995. - Chairman of the Board of Directors of ZAO Rosprom.

In December, 1995. held mortgage auction for 45%-Term package of shares in Yukos, combined with the investment tender for sale of 33% stake. Competition and won the auction company "Laguna" safeguards Menatep ". The total investment commitments "Laguna" amounted to $ 350 million.

Shortly after the mortgage auction - Spring 1996. - "MENATEP" got the money auction 7,06% stake in Yukos. Autumn 1996. Yukos has made an additional issue of shares, the income from the placement of which was sent to the repayment of budgetary arrears of holding and its subsidiaries. Government's stake in the company (who was at that time as a mortgage) has lost weight - from 45 to 33,33%. Menatep and controlled by, the company bought fair share additional issue, as well as the whole is not placed among the shareholders of the balance. In this package, purchased "Laguna" on an investment, resulting in emission of 1996. also decreased - from 33 to 24,44%. A few days after summing up the placement of additional issue, "MENATEP" put on the investment tender pledge stake in Yukos. At this competition the winner was determined by the proposed price for the shares. The starting price was set at $ 160 million investment - $ 200 million. two years. The winner was an investment company "Mont Blanc", controlled by Menatep, which has proposed a 33.33% stake in Yukos's $ 160.1 million. This investment tender was the last stage of the privatization of Yukos Oil. According to the results "MENATEP" gained control over more than 90% of the shares of oil company spending for the acquisition of these assets of about $ 350 million. At the time of creation of the state of Yukos Oil Company have been made, controlling stakes in two oil companies: "Samarneftegaz and Yuganskneftegaz, . three refineries: the Kuibyshev Refinery, . Novokuibyshevsk Refinery, . Syzran Refinery, . as well as companies, . engaged in prospecting, . maintenance and marketing of petroleum products,
. Yukos was a holding company that combines the control (or close to the control) stakes in companies with real assets: fixed assets, licenses, cash and pr. At the end of 2002. Yukos estimated at $ 21 mlrd.S 20 April 1996. Mikhail Khodorkovsky - the first vice-president of AO Yukos Oil Company. "Since June 1996. - Chairman of the Board of Directors of OAO NK Yukos.

Since February 1997. - Chairman of the Management Company, established Rosprom and Yukos oil company to manage. Since 1998. after the reorganization of the company, Yukos, Mikhail Khodorkovsky became chairman of the board OOO YUKOS-Moscow ". Menatep in August 1998. after the crisis, faced with financial difficulties. It was announced merger Menatep ONEKSIM and MOST-Bank. The new structure was named "Rosbank", then only the owner of steel structures "Interros". All customer base and branch network "MENATEP" got its bridge bank - Menatep St. Petersburg ".

From November 12, 1998. October 1999. Khodorkovsky - a member of the Board of Fuel and Energy Ministry of Russia. Since October 2000. - Member of the Bureau at exhibition industry entrepreneurs.

Mikhail Khodorkovsky personally owns 9.5% of Group MENATEP Ltd. He is also the sole beneficiary of the scheme, simulating the trust fund through which formalized the ownership of 50% of. The right to dispose of those shares may move to another shareholder group, pre-designated Khodorkovsky, in the event of his death or force majeure such as imprisonment or kidnapping (Information Group MENATEP Ltd).

According to British magazine EuroBusiness, his condition was 8 billion. euro up to 2002. In the list of world's richest men, drawn up by the same publication, Mikhail Khodorkovsky held 30 th. Forbes magazine on the basis of 2002. evaluated the state of Mikhail Khodorkovsky in the $ 8 billion. - Is the best result among the Russians.

Contains the second marriage. His wife, Inna V., worked as an expert in the department of currency transactions Menatep ". Son Paul (1985g.r.) From his first marriage, daughter Anastasia (1991g.r.) - From the second.

Mikhail Khodorkovsky was arrested at Novosibirsk airport in the early morning of October 25 and was transferred to Moscow

. Arrest was preceded by numerous searches in the different structures of Yukos and the structures close to him, . charges against one of the key managers of the company Vasily Shakhnovsky, . checks and searches in the offices of Yukos lawyers, . one of the largest shareholders, . at that moment - Duma deputy Vladimir Dubov.,

. November 4, 2003 Khodorkovsky resigned as head of Yukos, explained his decision to withdraw the company from the blow.

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