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Valuev Pyotr

( graph - Russian statesman)

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Biography Valuev Pyotr
(1814 - 90). After passing the exam (at Moscow University), served in the Office of the Moscow Military Governor-General, in the 2-m separation Immediate His Imperial Majesty's Chancellery, in 1845. appointed officer on special assignments at the Riga military governor-general Golovin. Thanks Relations, . incidentally, . through his wife (he was married to Princess Vyazemskaya, . daughter of the famous poet), . diligence, . knowledge of foreign languages, . ability to speak and write formal papers, . but most of all thanks to skillful maneuvering between the opposing currents, . He made a brilliant career,
. In 1853, Mr.. He was appointed governor of Courland. In 1855, Mr.. Valuev wrote a note: "The Duma of the Russian" (published in 1891. in "Russian Antiquities", N 5) and sent her the manuscript of the Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich and other dignitaries, was considered the supporters of reform. In this note, he argued that we have top luster, bottom rot, in the works of our official verbiage is no place for truth is the law of branded insincerity ... Everywhere contempt and dislike the idea of moving without special orders; everywhere custody of minors; everywhere opposition government to the people, the private treasury, instead of celebrating their natural and inextricable link. Neglecting to each of us in particular, and to human beings in general, remain in the laws ... ". All our agencies "discover boundless indifference to everything that thinks, feels or knows Russia ...". "Management has been brought by each individual part, to the highest degree of centralization, but the mutual relationship of these parts are few and shaky. Weight Affairs, now rising to the major principalities, exceed their strength. They need to provide a significant portion of these cases to the arbitrariness of their offices. Thus the fate of representations of the provincial chiefs and governors-general is very often depends not on the ministers, but from the head clerks of one or another ministry ". Note attracted the attention of, Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich official order of the Maritime Ministry recommended that "a very remarkable note", . and, . bringing out several large excerpts, . instructed "to report these truthful words to people and places of the naval department, . from which the beginning of next year we expect to report for the current year ",
. In 1858, Mr.. Valuev was appointed director of the 2 nd Department of the Ministry of State Property, and then Secretary of State. Without losing the sympathy of the Liberal Party, he managed to please her and the nearest commander, reactionary and feudal Muravyov. Ants are often placed on Valuev drawing objection to the draft which drew up the editorial committees; Valuev in his own words was "the pen of the opposition" - that is, opposition to the liberation of the peasants. January 7, 1861, Mr.. Valuev was appointed manager of the affairs of the Committee of Ministers, and on April 23 that same year at the head of the Ministry of Interior instead of Lansky, who have spent the peasant reform and ousted the feudal intrigue, with Muravyov headed. But the situation Muraveva about this time was badly shaken, and Valuev quickly changed his. In 1863, Mr.. Valuev has written and handed a note to Alexander II, . in which to prevent fermentation in Russia and to prevent possible interference by European powers to protect Poland recommended a reform of public administration in higher, . but such, . which would leave intact the prerogatives of the sovereign power,
. It recommended that representatives of the people elected Zemstvo meeting on 2 - 4 in the province, as well as thoughts of larger urban cities, to invite the Council of State, but not always, but when discussing some specific cases. This was a draft constitution to the connection bureaucratic autocracy. Note did not have any effect. Valuev when he was Minister of the Interior conducted two major reforms: Zemstvo 1864. and censor 1865. Both reforms were piecemeal in nature, and yet immediately after the elections he Valuev began to struggle as a council, defending the prerogatives of the administration, and printing. Since 1866. began to appear novel of censorship charter, . that print embarrassed more and more, new magazines and newspapers were permitted Valuev with extreme difficulty, . and even from pre-existing bodies Katkov and Aksakov, . not to mention the liberal, . were warnings and prohibitions,
. In conjunction with the order of freedom, as understood by Valuev, the first was to constantly give second. March 9, 1868, Mr.. He was dismissed from the post of Minister of Internal Affairs. The immediate cause to be failure to take action to combat hunger. Being a member of the State Council, Valuev, however, was still in sight. In 1872, Mr.. was appointed Minister of State Property. In this position Valuev brought the situation of agriculture in Russia and became the head of the so-called Valuev Commission, the purpose of his study. The Commission has issued several volumes of works, but had no practical results. While managing Valuev Ministry on a large scale was handing out free or for a small price treasury (Bashkirian) of land in Ufa province. In 1877, Mr.. Valuev was appointed chairman of the Committee of Ministers and also the office's chief of His Majesty's acceptance of petitions. In 1879, Mr.. Valuev again Alexander II gave his constitutional draft in 1863, but this time without any positive results. February 19, 1880, Mr.. Valuev bestowed dignity Count. Until then Valuev as chairman of the Committee of Ministers enjoyed considerable influence, but the rise of Count Loris-Melikov, his strong enemy, put an end to the influence. Besides audit Senator M.E. Kovalevsky discovered the abuse when distributing the Bashkir lands Ufa province; himself Valuev remained not suspected of malicious purposes, but as a minister he was responsible for the actions of their subordinates. October 4, 1881, Mr.. Valuev has resigned from the post of chairman of the Committee of Ministers, but retained his seat in the Council of State. This state activity Valuev ended. Received an unexpected free time, Valuev engaged in literary activity, which was not a stranger before. In 1858, Mr.. he published in official overseas authority of the Russian government "Nord": "Lettres sur l'affranchissement des paysans dans les provinces Baltiques" (these letters translated into Russian Messenger, 1858, N 1 and 2). In 1876, Mr.. (as Minister of State Property) issued Valuev in Berlin, under the signature "Russian", a brochure "Russian foreign journalists, dedicated to a sharp controversy with Samarin, Dmitriev, Prince Vasilchikov and Koshelev. In 1882, Mr.. Valuev appeared novel of high life, "Lorin". In 1887, Mr.. in the Journal of Europe "published his novel" The Black Thief, in 1891, Mr.. in The Russian Messenger "-" Princess Tatiana ". Artistic talent Valuev is very small, but it does have some powers of observation and some satirical vein, and his stories are interesting in an extremely negative attitude to the high society milieu in which life revolved Valuev. In addition, Valuev has placed in the "News of Europe" (1888, N 3) the article "Religious unrest and persecution from V to XVII century.". He still belongs to "a collection of brief reverential readings on all days of the year". Some of his works of religious content were banned spiritual censorship, as close to Protestantism. The most important of literary works Valuev - his diary, which he led from a very early time, almost to death. Printed in "Russian Antiquities" 1891. of the diary relating to the 1847 - 60 years., in the Journal of Europe "1907. - By 1880, in the collection of the past "(St. Petersburg, 1908) - to 1881 - 84 years. Diary is very valuable as historical material. Valuev finds here a critical mind, strongly condemns the activities of the government for a very, very much, and, moreover, just for being what he himself was guilty of very great extent - for restraint of thought, bureaucracy, excessive centralization, and t. n. In 1879, t. e. when he was chairman of the Committee of Ministers, Valuev, wrote in his diary: "I do not see the Government's mind, though, and I see pravitelstvovanie. I think that still in pieces and crush all collapses, and I am powerless to collapse and the collapse Disrupts. All the same feeling: I see what others did not seem to see ". In 1881, Mr.. He wrote: "It's a pity our government Pharisees, even the most intelligent, as Abaza and Solsky". "One feels that the soil zybletsya, building threatens to fall, but the townsfolk did not seem to notice this - and hosts a vague smell a rat, but the secret internal anxiety". In caricatured Valuev is depicted in the satire of Alexei Tolstoy's "Dream official Popova". - See. P. Shchegolev "constitutional developments from 1879 - 1881 gg." ( "Past", 1906, N 12); "Count of Valois on the situation in Russia in 1882" ( "Last years", 1908, N 10). On the graph Valuev as a religious writer cm. special sketch in the book: A priest N.R. Antonov Russian secular scholars and their religious and social world view "(T. I, St. Petersburg., 1912). V. Vodovozov.

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